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ED 436 111 

IR 019 734 






Proceedings of the Mid-South Instructional Technology 
Conference (Murfreesboro, Tennessee, March 28-30, 1999). 
Middle Tennessee State Univ. , Murfreesboro. 


160p.; For individual conference papers, see IR 019 735-750. 
For full text: 

chttp : //www. /proceed99/proceed99 . html> . 
Collected Works - Proceedings (021) 

MF01/PC07 Plus Postage. 

♦Computer Uses in Education; Delivery Systems; Distance 
Education; Educational Practices; *Educational Technology; 
Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Development; 
Multimedia Instruction; Postsecondary Education; Teaching 
Methods; *World Wide Web 

Course Development; Knowledge Acquisition; Technology 
Integration; *Technology Utilization 


This proceedings contains papers that address the following 
topics related to educational technology: (1) alternative course delivery, 

including planning and implementing a World Wide Web-based education program, 
■describing an interstate collaborative approach to Web-based instruction, 
moving Web-based courses to the next level, and putting real lectures on the 
Web; (2) beyond knowledge acquisition, including hypermediated learning 
environments and multimedia instructional program for youths with chronic 
illness; (3) pedagogy and technology integration, including electronic 
conferencing, JavaScript interactivity for the class Web page, and using a 
word processor to put math symbols on the home page; (4) best practices, 
including assessing the impact of technology on teaching and learning, 
classroom assessment techniques designed for technology, copyright in the 
academic environment, effective use of audio in multimedia presentations, a 
satellite outreach program for rural K-12 schools, Web site enhancement of 
traditional pedagogy, and online student performance in subsequent 
campus -based courses; (5) faculty development and facilities design, 
including establishing a faculty development center, faculty collaboration on 
multidisciplinary Web-based education, a survey of instructors of Web 
courses, and the course development process; and (6) looking ahead, including 
technology for preservice teachers and implications of the globalization of 
higher education. A summary of a workshop on getting started with multimedia 

is also included. (MES) 

Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made 
from the original document. 



Proceedings of the Mid-South Instructional Technology 
Conference (Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 

March 28-30, 1999) 

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Proceedings of the 1 999 Mid-South Instructional Technologies Conference http://ww\, ; ~itcorif/proceed99/proceed99.htm! 

of the 1999 Mid-South 
Instructional Technology Conference 

Featured Sessions 

Track 1 

Alternative Course Deliver/ 

Track 2 

Bevond Knowledge Acquisition 

Track 3 

Pedagogy and Technology Integration 

Track 4 

Best Practices 

Track 5 

Faculty Development and Facilities Design 

Track 6 

Looking Ahead , 


Featured Sessions 

Keynote Address 

IMS: Building the Internet Architecture for Learning 

Mark A. Resmer, Associate Vice President of Information Technology, Sonoma State University 

Banquet Address 

The Learning Revolution: Where Are We and Where Are We Headed? 

Judith Boettcher, Executive Director, Corporation for Research and Educational 
NetworkingCCREN) V 

Featured Address 

Higher Education: Technology Trends for the New Millennium 

Thomas S. Buchsbaum; Vice President, Education; Dell Computer Corporation 

Featured Address 

Technology and Teaching: A Guide to 21st Century Hyperleaming 

Thomas E. Cyrs, Professor, New Mexico State University 

Track Sessions 

Track One: Alternative Course Delivery 



Getting to There from Here: How to Successfully Go from Planning to Implem enting_a 
Web-based Education Program 

1 of 5 


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Proceedings of the 1999 Mid-South Instructional Technologies Conference 

Paula Szulc Dominguez and Suzanne Alexander, Christopher Newport University 

An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction ^ 

Denise Grant and Gay Bryant, Northwestern Technical Institute and Daryl Gilley, Pellissiopi 
State Technical Community College 

Moving Web-based Courses to the Next Level 

Roger Van Holzen, Northwest Missouri State University 

MTSU and the Southern Regional Electronic Campus 

Liz Johnson, Middle Tennessee State University 

Putting Design Back in Curriculum Design 

Jody Strauch, Northwest Missouri State University 

Putting "Real" Lectures on the Web 

Delbert L. Hall, East Tennessee State University 

Teaching with Authentic (Internet) Documents: Interactive Uses of Internet Resources in 

the Language Classroom 

Susan F. Spillman, Xavier University of Louisiana 

Technology and Teaching: A Comparison of Traditional Classroom Lecturing and 

Distance Learning via the World Wide Web 

Donald F. Kendrick and David W. Ayer, Middle Tennessee State University 

The Visual Calculus Project 

Lawrence S. Husch, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 

World Wide Web Presentations: Futuristic Strategies 

Rubye C. Sanders, Lander University 

Track Two: Beyond Knowledge Acquisition 

Developing Modules for Web-based Bibliographic Instruction 

Mary Hricko, Kent State University Geauga Campus 

Hvpermediated Learning Environments: Students Collaborating with Technology s/ 

H. Willis Means and Mary S. Love, Middle Tennessee State University 

Implementing an Interactive Paperless Class 

Dan Lim, University of Minnesota, Crookston 

MAPP: Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness ^ 

Peggy O'Hara Murdock, Middle Tennessee State University and Christopher McClure, 
University of Miami School of Medicine 

Technology-based Collaborative Tools: A Primer with Tool Types and Current 

Richard Ranker and Craig Loftus, East Tennessee State University 



2 of 5 



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Proceedings of the 1999 Mid-South Instructional Technologies Conference 


Using Technology to Mainstream Academically Underprepared Students 
F.Kim Wilcox and Kay Patterson, University of Missouri-Kansas City 

Track Three: Pedagogy and Technology Integration 

An Interactive Multimedia Learning Experience: The History of Interior Design 
Catherine L. Kendall, University of Tennessee. Knoxville w 

Creating the Electronic Classroom: A Practical Guide 

Larry J. Easley and Steven Hoffman, Southeast Missouri State University 

Electronic Conferencing in an Applied Discipline: An Example from Social Work s/ 

Kenneth Lancaster, Middle Tennessee State University and Jack Stokes, Southeast Missouri 
State University 

JavaScript: Convenient Interactivity for the Class Web Page J 
Patricia Gray, Rhodes College 

Moving Beyond the Overhead: Using Action Research to Evaluate and Plan for 
Instructional Technology 

Melissa M. Groves and Paula Zemel, University of Tennessee. Knoxville 

Old Dogs, New Tricks, Adult Learners, and Technology 
Donna Dillingham-Evans, Dixie College 

Put Math Symbols on the Web using Word 97 and WordPerfect 8 
Katherine Creery, The University of Memphis 

Track Four: Best Practices 

Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: Student Perspectives \/ 
Barbara Draude and Sylvia Brace, Middle Tennessee State University 


Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology v/ 

Mary B. Martin, Middle Tennessee State University 

Computer Technology and Freshman Seminar at Eastern New Mexico University: 

Integration, Assessment, and Outcomes 

Dann Brown, Eastern New Mexico University 

Copyright in the Academic Environment >/ 

Diane Baird and Karin Hallett, Middle Tennessee State University 

Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations J 
Brenda Kerr, Middle Tennessee State University 

Interactive Compressed TV: Achievement and Management Issues 

Candace Lacey, J. Stephen Guffey, and Larry C. Rampp, Arkansas State University 



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Proceedings of the 1999 Mid-South Instructional Technologies Conference 

. . Satellite Outreach Program to Rural K-12 Schools ^ 

' - Charles H. Frost, John Sanborn, and Stacey Borasky, Middle Tennessee State University 

Total Immersion Learning: A Metaphor for Developing Computer Literacy 
Julie Bowers, David Currie, and Laraine Powers, East Tennessee State University 

Using Instructional Technology to Provide Students with Course Material: Do Students 
Get What They Expect? 

Jerry L. Gaugland, Southeast Missouri State University 

) Web Site Enhancement of Traditional Classroom Pedagogy ^ 

Timothy W. Hiles, University of Tennessee. Knoxville 

What Happens After the Online Course Ends? Student Performance in Subsequent 
Campus-based Courses 

Paula Szulc Dominguez and Dennis Ridley, Christopher Newport University 

Track Five: Faculty Development and Facilities Design 

/ Establishing a Faculty Technology Center ■ 

Roger Von Holzen, Northwest Missouri State University 

/Faculty Interdepartmental Collaboration on Web-based Education at the College of 
Applied Science, University of Cincinnati 
Vladimir L. Uskov, University of Cincinnati 

The Georgia Virtual Technical Institute 

Debbie Dlugolenski and Ray Brooks, Northwestern Technical Institute 

Lessons Well Learned: The Experience of Using a Project Team for Instructional 
Technology Development 

Stephen P. Hundley, Patrick Baxter, Marla Francisco, and Adam Siurek, Indiana 
Universitv-Purdue University Indianapolis 

)Portrait of the Earlv-Adopter: Survey of Instructors of WWW Courses, Spring 1998 ^ 
Carol W. Wilson, Western Kentucky University 

i Taking It Online: A Bootstraps Approach 

Ginger Sabine and Daryl Gilley, Northwestern Technical Institute 

Track Six: Looking Ahead 

Media Curriculum at the Millennium: Evolution of Technology and Scholarship 

David Sedman and Barry Vecker, Southern Methodist University 

The New Paradigm Praxis for Teaching and Learning in a Technology Classroom: 
Andragogy Edges Out Pedagogy 

J. Stephen Guffey and Larry C. Rampp, Arkansas State University 



4 of 5 


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Proceed tags of the 1999 Mid-South Instructional Technologies Conference 

Technology as a Tool for Academic Dishonesty 

Jill Austin and Linda Brown, Middle Tennessee State University 

• : ■ Technology for Pre-service Teachers v/ 

Karen Jarrett Thomas, St. Cloud State Unversitv 

) Through a Looking Glass Dimly: The Implications of the Globalization of Higher 

Jim Formosa, Nashville State Tech 

The Virtual Field Trip Experience 

Connie Zimmer, Arkansas Tech University 


Animations for the Web and Multimedia Applications 

Daniel K. Ward II, Steven Bardonner, and Kyle D. Wiley, Iw Tech State College 

Building Your Online Classroom 

Gina Roberts and Rhonda J. Spearman, University of Tennessee. Knoxville 

petting Started with Multimedia in the Classroom and Tutorial Lab . 

David Alan Otts, Annette Williams, Carol Willis Dawson, and Vivian R. M. Alley, Middle 
Tennessee State University 

Teaching and Learning with Technology: Developing a Teaching.Enhancement Plan 

Julie K. Little and Jean A. Derco, University of Tennessee. Knoxville 

Thinknology: Using Instructional Technology to Enhance Thinking 

Julie K. Little and Rhonda J. Spearman, University of Tennessee. Knoxville 

Using the Internet and PowerPoint to Enhance Student Learning 

Jay Sanders and Dorothy Craig, Middle Tennessee State University 
Paper One 
Paper Two 

WebQuests: Making the Connections Work! 

Betty Reynolds and Paceda Petrone, St. Bernard Academy 



5 of 5 

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Getting Wm There to Here 

Getting from there to here: 

How to (successfully) go from planning to implementing a 
web-based education program 

Paula Szulc Dominguez, Ed.D. 

Coordinator, CNU Online 

Suzanne Alexander 
Systems Engineer, CNU Online 


Institutional Background 
CNU Online 

Rationale for changing to a web-based system 

Evaluating and selecting a web-based system: 


Problems Encountered So Far 

Next Steps 




Institutions do not lightly make the decision to develop a web-based education program. Whether the 
underlying rationale rests in expanding an institution's reach, providing new services, or keeping up with 
students' shifting needs, once a decision is made, an array of activities must be undertaken to maximize 
the program's success. These activities involve the cooperation of all campus populations— faculty, 
administrators, technical support personnel, and students— and typically take place within a stated time 

In this paper, we document the steps taken by Christopher Newport University (CNU) as it planned and 
implemented a web-based education program in 1998-99. We begin by documenting the context for 
distance education at CNU, and detail the history of both the institution and distance education. Next, we 
describe the rationale that prompted CNU to invest time and resources into developing a web-based 
education program, as well as the evaluation of the different program options we had. We discuss the 
implementation of the program, including the training we conducted and the support systems we put into 
place. As all best-laid plans encounter problems, we provide an account of the ones we have come 
across. Finally, we take a look ahead and describe the program's next steps and future directions. 


Institutional Background: 

Named after the sea captain who piloted the Virginia Company's early seventeenth century expeditions, 
Christopher Newport University was established in 1960 as a two-year branch of the College of William 
and Mary. In 1971, CNU became a four-year baccalaureate degree granting institution, and six years 
later, CNU became totally independent of the College of William and Mary. CNU now occupies over 
100 acres in Newport News, Virginia. Today, the university enrolls approximately 4,000 undergraduate 


1 OI 0 


11/30/99 4:35 PM 


Getting from There to Here 

■ *■ jji i l 

Named after the sea captain who piloted the Virginia Company's early seventeenth century expeditions, 
Christopher Newport University was established in 1960 as a two-year branch of the College of William 
and Mary. In 1971, CNU became a four-year baccalaureate degree granting institution, and six years later, 
CNU became totally independent of the College of William and Mary. CNU now occupies over 100 acres 
in Newport News, Virginia. Today, the university enrolls approximately 4,000 undergraduate and 1,000 
graduate students. 

CNU s original mission closely revolved around meeting the needs of an older, commuter population, many 
of whom had work and family responsibilities that competed with their student lives. Over the past five 
years, however, CNU has been aggressively pursuing residential students and students of the traditional 
college-going age. The university built its first dormitory in 1994, and ground was broken in February, 

1999 for the second dormitory. Considerable attention and energy within the administration focuses on 
developing campus-based resources, such as a new gymnasium and fine arts center, to attract and retain a 
qualified, residential student body. 


CNU Online: 

Christopher Newport University's distance education program, CNU Online, began as a faculty-initiated 
effort in the early 1990s. Initially, one faculty member in the Department of Philosophy and Religious 
Studies began to use a shareware bulletin board-based system to support his on-campus classes. The 
bulletin board proved to be welcome by the students. In 1991, one telephone line and an IBM 8088 were 
enough to support the users. By the fall semester of 1992, however, the number of telephone lines had to 
be expanded to five to meet the increasing demand, while the bulletin board relied on an IBM 486 that 
used PCBOARD software. In the fall of 1993, faculty members from the Department of Government and 
Public Administration became interested in the system. The Government and Philosophy departments 
jointly operated the online program as an experiment in 1993. 

In 1994, the Government and Philosophy departments successfully obtained funds from the Virginia 
General Assembly to officially establish a two-year online trial program dubbed CNU Online. During this 
period, CNU Online was required to demonstrate the equivalency of instruction and student learning 
between online and on-campus courses. A series of qualitative and quantitative analyses confirmed that 
there were no measurable differences in student learning that related to the format of instruction. 

With this information, the General Assembly approved CNU’s online program and CNU Online opened up 
its doors as a distance education program independent of department sponsorship in 1996. At this time, the 
bulletin board system was replaced by FirstClass, a message based system that required the installation of 
client software. Over the past three years, enrollments have continued to increase each semester, as have 
the number of online courses offered. CNU Online now provides more than 50 online courses to 660 
students each semester, which is approximately one in seven students at CNU. Two complete degree 
programs are available online— a bachelor of science degree in Government and Public Administration, and 
a bachelor of arts degree in Philosophy and Religious Studies. In addition to the online courses, the system 
is used to support on-campus instruction and hosts a campus-wide electronic town hall. 

Like the situation at many other institutions, most CNU Online students (approximately 88%) live within 
commuting distance of campus. Another nine percent live in-state, but outside of the immediate area, and 
another three percent of students live out-of-state. For most of our online students, then, it is the 
convenience that comes from time-shifting school work that serves as a major incentive for participation, 
and not the distance between home and campus per se. 




Getting from There to Here 

LTo pl 

Rationale for changing to a web-based system: 

By 1998, Christopher Newport University’s online education program had established a presence among 

thpF^ trf StudentS a lke ’ A cadre offacult y members representing core disciplines was comfortable using 
he RrstClass system, as were the online students. The increase in the number of courses anTstutos each 
ester indicated that the existing online program was a success. But in early 1998, despite the 
considerable investment of time and resources, CNU’s administration decided to abandon the existing 
message-Dased system and adopt a weo-Dased format. What factors contributed to that decision? 

Jamnnif F C t Ch ™ to P her Newport University’s resolve to introduce a web-based system to 
ampus^ First, practically speaking, moving to a web-based system would allow CNU Online suDDort staff 
to use their time more effectively. With the FirstClass system; a large proportion of SSl 
each semester was directed at mailing out software to students and troubleshooting problems that steiS 
attention U? ating , the software - B y curtailing these two activities, support staff could direct their 

material! S^mndTh^ 62 ^ 21 preV10USly had been shortchanged (e.g., helping faculty create course 
atenals). Second, the web permits a more sophisticated use of instructional resources than could be found 

Ztr IT 5 " 26 ' S ? tem ’ InStrUCt0rs could add sound and video files to their courses, create links to 

other web resources and incorporate a graphical interface for the students. Finally, the continued 

popularity of the web requires that CNU take advantage of it for instruction. A web-based system would be 
rnr o a arge population and allow an easy migration for incoming students. In order for CNU to 

vpTrP 5 !i 0mPetlt!Ve ” the K increasin S 1 y crowded marketplace of online education, it had to respond to the 
very real expansion in web use. v 

The decision to move to a web-based system stemmed from the administration from CNU and initially was 
not well received by faculty. Most online faculty members at CNU are not given release time to prepare for 
their online courses, and were understandably upset at the prospect of having to spend extra time to leam a 
new system and create a host of new materials. One of our main concerns, then, as we SST 
ifferent web-based packages in Apnl, 1998 was how to gamer faculty support for the new system. 


Evaluating and selecting a web-based system: 

fn.»ri a h ,r, , con l [,osed ° f facult >' members and CNU Online staff assembled a list of seven 

criteria that would be used in evaluating the number of web-based systems that were on the market The 
first criterion was that the new program must be able to incorporate audio and video technology to 

the ° n ™ ' mereStS f T“ lty membeK wh0 wished t0 add new features ‘° their courses Second 

the new program must not involve the installation of specialized software. As mentioned above 

responding to software installation problems constituted a considerable drain on CNU Online staff time 

and Prevented us from working on other tasks. The third criterion we employed is that the new system must 

be suited for both Mac's and PCs. That is, we did no. want to dictate a particular platfom to our olZe 

r y ' ’ ' Ve k WaMed t0 “'«> a co mpany with good technical support. CNU Online is 
dedicated to offering a system that is available 24 hours, 7 days a week, and we expect nothing less from 

a'* ' Vh ‘ Ch WC WOrk ' A fifth criteiion was that the new system should not requfre students 

studenK lxth nd we°STt ° f “T 0wn '. sin “ we wanted t0 be ““hive 10 rhe financial realities of our 
students. Sixth, we needed to make sure that the faculty learning curve for mastering the new system would 

be minimal, to respond to our faculty's tight schedules. Finally, the new system ideally would ran off a unix 
server, which would permit remote administration, and have secure login capability 




Getting from There to Here , „ 


Of the various web-based systems we identified, we subjected four of them for in-depth consideration 
using our list of criteria. At this point we should say that our evaluation of these products reflects CNU's 
particular needs and likes, and that other institutions might come to very different conclusions about the 
systems suitability. We realize also that more recent versions of the programs listed below might alreadv 
have addressed the limitations we identified. y 

In our evaluation, we considered Web Course In a Box, Courselnfo, Top Class, and WebCT. Each system 
had its own strengths and weaknesses. We found that Web Course In a Box did not include the 
administrative tools we required. Although Courselnfo did have a suitable array of administrative tools it 
did not offer faculty the flexibility in course design they wanted. Top Class received high points for its ’ 
administrative and course design tools, but lacked search and sort tools, a major flaw for our faculty. 

In going through these initial reviews, we realized that our list of criteria had to be expanded to reflect 
three other, critical needs. First, we needed the system to manage all courses in one course containment 
area. Second, the new system really had to have superlative administrative tools for maintenance and 
management. Finally, the new system had to incorporate search and sort tools. 

With this reconsideration of the criteria, we found that WebCT met our needs most closely, although it 
certainly had its own limitations. The greatest advantage offered by WebCT, we felt, was its large user base 
and active user group, which have provided essential information for our own trouble-shooting. Also, we 
found that the support we received from WebCT prior to our purchasing a license was far better than the 
reactions we received from other companies. In July, 1998, approximately three months after we 
established our initial list of criteria, our ad hoc selection committee assembled and voted to purchase the 
WebCT program. Our attention next turned to the very practical matter of getting the program up and 
running by the Spring, 1999 semester. 



Our implementation activities can be divided into two distinct periods: the four months prior to WebCT's 
January, 1999 debut, and the time after we began using it for our online courses. Prior to WebCT's debut 
we focused on training as many of our faculty and support staff as we could, and concentrated on 

information that was at the core of the online courses: communication tools, course administration and 
course content. 

We were particularly concerned about our online faculty, many of whom had busy schedules. Our main 
fear was that faculty members would wait until the end of the semester to learn the system, and would 
descend full force upon the CNU Online support staff just as our attention was shifting to addressing the 
needs and questions of our online students. For this reason, once we decided to purchase WebCT we 
immediately began hosting regular training sessions directed at faculty. At the beginning of the Fall 
semester, we hired an outside consultant to lead a two-day training session that was attended by 
approximately 20 faculty members (about one-half of our online faculty). We also put together a special 
weekend session for adjunct faculty members to respond to the concern of full-time faculty. Apart from the 
training, we offered weekly, one-hour sessions on different WebCT topics, which were poorly attended. 

We attended faculty meetings to answer questions, and also communicated information electronically 
throughout the Fall 1998 semester. To supplement the faculty training, we put together two, 90-minute 
sessions for support staff in the departments that sponsor the online courses. 

One other concern was to alert our current students about the change in the online system that was about to 
Jake place. To this end, at the beginning of the Fall 1998 semester we created an open course for students 

Getting from There to Here 

to explore and posted messages encouraging students to consult it. On this site, students could also create 
messages discussing the new system. aiso create 

Toward the close of 199 8, we began to focus more on our online students. We sent instructions for using 
he new system to all students in December, which meant that those students would have one rnomh toL 

houHnn t £bC 8 tW ° W£ekS ° f the Sprin S 1999 semester, CNU Online offered 

from S amT a Tn n§ tW1CC d f ly that were wel1 attended. Our telephone help desk, which is staffed 

8 am to 10 pm weekdays and four hours each on Saturday and Sunday, also handled questions from 

I f n gene w W r^°^ d that the nUmber of < ? uestion s to our office dramatically decreased 
support tr0dUCtl0n or WeDC t • 1 ne free time meant that we could address other needs, including faculty 

fbout^frr?^ 8 °f th f £ S ^ ng 19 " Semester ’ faculty needs were much different. Instead of questions 
recnnndld h faCU y concerns revolved around preparing and uploading course content. We 

svllXtndc^Tt ng aS T S1Sta " Ce m scannin S- reformatting, and uploading course files, such as course 
Questions ' addltl ° n ’ We hdped Create 9uizzes from online instructors' test banks of 

One other area involved with implementation of WebCT deserves mention. To prepare for WebCT we 

our fi^l a stable techmcal infrastructure. To balance the potential for program expansion with 

W£ v u t0 P , UrCf l aSe 3 Server that was as hi 8 h end as we could afford. We opted to use 
Ultra II server, which we already had available, upgraded the memory to 256K, and purchased a 

second internal drive to allow us to mirror the system disk. We attached a Raid 5 SCSI disk array and a 
10-tape library backup system, put a Gigabit network card into the server, and placed it on a Gigabit 
switch. By the time our students were coming on line, the system was up and running. § 


Problems encountered so far: 

At the point of this paper's writing, we are now two months into the semester. Lest the above description 
give the impression that all has been smooth and seamless, we would like to describe three main problems 
^ aVC — r V ® ne area £ i| at ^ as deen deficient has been in the communication about WebCT We 
nPPHpH ei ip d Ha thebterature we dlsse minated to our online students lacked all the information they 
needed. For example, instructions for how to print online course material was left out of the student 
manuals we distnbuted. Another communication problem was that many of our online students were 
unaware of the change to WebCT, and became confused when, on the first day of the semester they tried 
logging onto the old system. Despite our efforts to spread the word, students were still caught unaware. 

fddmsTpt WphrTiT 2 HaS be f nkeeping up with faculty needs - Although we led training sessions that 
addresses WebCT basics, we did not cover the more advanced WebCT tools, such as course management 

quiz creation. We remedied this by hosting a second round of training in early Februaiy and by 
ve oping as ep- y-step manual for quizzes. As faculty members become more conversant in WebCT the 
complexity of their questions increases, and we have had to spend more time than we had amicipated ’ 
answering questions about advanced features. We also have been sorely taxed by the sheer volume of 
converting course content for online courses. CNU Online's policy is that our support staff is wiZg to 

scanningb 6 ° f C ° UrSe matenals in order to relieve faculty from the more mundane ta^ks of 

“ m Z U andre 4 formattln g and u Pl° ad ^g files. Faculty have not been shy about asking us to 
a n ^!V h . em - ^ hav J. tne . d t0 circumvent problems by requesting that faculty members provide us with the 
nformation at least five days before they need it uploaded, but not all faculty have respected this. 

GettingVrom There to Here 


Next Steps: 

°999 2M0 »rZ n ? '* i 0 ”' W111 d ' reC ‘ our energies at addressing four goals for the 

wr 9 nbn°?n,t l , Our fust goal is to improve training and information dissemination. To this end 
we plan to develop online training modules for students and develop a student tip page that describes 
typical problems and their solutions. The training of CNU Online staff is also a part of this first goal- CNU 

any ,rainins beyond the ,wo - day session hosted the ' 

ne t! S6C0 8 for the upcoming school year is to expand the number of departments and 
faculty members participating in the online program, as well as the range of applications available to 
faculty and students CNU Online has depended on the same core departments and faculty for the past 
several years. There is a perception on campus that the online program is the pet project of its most 

an^facT 0 USers (the Gov ^ mment and Philosophy departments), which may prevent other departments 
and faculty members from becoming involved. Although this appears strange, the online program primarily 
supports online classes. That is, other faculty do not see the benefit of incoq>orating online cfr^onems 
in o their campus-based instruction (e.g., to post course syllabi, notes, calendar). One of our aims then is 
to develop other uses for the online program. To date, we have fashioned an electronic town hall for faculty 
members across the university to use, and are discussing creating an online site for the campus' writing 

third goal is to push the envelope of uses among our online faculty members. Understandably faculty 
members have been straightforward with their uses of WebCT, and have relied extensively on text and % 
messaging the same basic features of the system we abandoned in favor of WebCT. Over the next vear 

then, we will work to encourage faculty members to incojporate graphics, video, and sound into their ’ 
courses . 

Finally, we will stove to extend our student base. At this time, the majority of our online students live 
within commuting distance of campus. We would like to attract in-state students (who would appreciate 
the in-student tuition rates) living outside of commuting distance to the online program. To do this we 
have to dedicate resources to develop a marketing plan and determine a way to reach these 2SS 



The online program at Christopher Newport University has experienced consistent growth from its 
inception in the early 1990s We are not naive enough to assume that our recent migration to a web-based 
system will be our last, but hope that our recent experiences will allow us to make future decisions with 
confidence. The process of making a transition to a new system is a difficult one for all parties involved 
Based on the situations, dilemmas, and solutions we encountered, we maintain that establishing clear 
communication channels and training provides the strongest foundation for an online program’s success 


Gettingfrom There to Here 

http://www. m n &proceed99/Domi n guez2.htr 

Paula Szulc Dominguez, Ed.D. 

Coordinator, CNU Online 

Suzanne Alexander 
Systems Engineer, CNU Online 

CNU Online 

Christop her Newport University 
1 University Place ~ ~ 

Newport News, VA 23606 



An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 
Presented at the Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

Middle Tennessee State University 

Ms. Denise Grant, Department Chair, Allied health and Nursing, Northwestern Technical Institute 
Ms. Gay Bryant, Department Chair, Office Technology, Pellissippi State Technical Community College 
Dr. Daryl Gilley, Vice President for Instruction, Northwestern Technical Institute 



The Collaborative Effort 
Faculty Training 
The Design Process 
Hardware and Software Issues 
Third Party Partnerships 
Lessons Learned 
Appendix A 


Faculty from two different institutions in different states develop an online course using a variety of 
multimedia formats to deliver the instructional package including online lessons and examinations, 
locally produced CD/ROM supplementary material, text and accompanying disk, and third party course 
management software. The presentation will present an overview of the development process from 
conception to delivery and will include an online demonstration of the finished product. 


An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

Introduction: In November 1997, with the support of the administration in the form of resources and 
time, several members of the faculty of Northwestern Technical Institute made a conscious decision and 
commitment to develop courses of study for delivery over the World Wide Web. However, even with 
significant preplanning, to paraphrase another group of early explorers, "we were blindly going where no 
one had gone before." Choosing to create an online course with little or no previous experience posed a 
daunting challenge for the team investigating what we then called alternative instructional delivery. At 
the outset the Northwestern team consisted of 10 members. Today, three of the original team members 
have persisted and have courses currently on the web. 

This paper will document the efforts of two faculty members from different states who collaborated to 
create and deliver an online class in record time. The class, "Medical Terminology," was developed and 
brought online in less than one year from initial conceptualization to finished product. 



1 or i i 


11/30/99 4:36 PM 

An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

persisted and have courses currently on the web. 

This paper will document the efforts of two faculty members from different states who collaborated to 

ESSE? ? el ‘ ver , an °"" ne dass » *»1 toe. The class, "Medical Terminology/ was Soil Ind 
ght online in less than one year from initial conceptualization to finished product. 

The paper will address 6 aspects of the project: 

1. The collaborative effort 

2. Faculty training 

3. The design process 

4. Hardware and software issues 

5. Auxiliary multimedia interfaces 

6. Third-party partnership 


The Collaborative Effort: 

?oL C i lab0 J atiVe n ff0 ^ was betwee " facully membere from Pellissippi State Technical Community 
two .* ■ n , Knoxv,Ile - Termessee - “I* Northwestern Technical Institute in Rock Spring, Georgia These 
two institutions are approximately 150 miles apart; they were drawn together by a series of chance 

m, C 'nff erS T ha h T ‘ " thls project - The facul ‘y member at Pellissippi State is the Department Chair of 

c^utX n ctd?n y g Pr08ram a " d " ad S ° me famiHarity With Web ' baSed inStmCti ° n ’ haVing OTated 3 

The second instructor is the chair of the Nursing and Allied Health Department at Northwestern Technical 
Insti ute and, prior to this effort, had never created any document for online use. Essentially both 
developers were relative novices and so began the process with a relatively steep learning curve facing 

The event that drew the two faculty members together was a piece of software to manage online courses 
"TheT S a em§ ?? nSldere ? for P urchase - The software, a course management software application called 
Thmn L ah g M . anager \ was bein S used at Pellissippi and was being implemented at Northwestern 

° gh ~ Wlth tHe software vendor - Ms. Bryant and Ms. Grant were innocently thrown 
together and, as fate would have it, discovered common interests and ways in which they could help each 

Tnv Siifh Want6d t0 ° ffer 2 C ° UrSe in mediGal terminol °gy for their office technology students but lacking 

Zted tn P f? gnimS 00 CampU j.’ ^ n0t haVe the Curricular ex P erdse to develop the course. Northwestern 
anted to offer an existing medical terminology class on the web to facilitate student scheduling and to 

initia,ive but did not have the technicaI expertise in the Allied Health 

At the first exploratory meeting between the two colleges, faculty and administrators worked to determine 

?®7 ablllty °! such a J0int effort - 0nce 11 was determined that there were no accreditation issues that the 

Ji Uie COmpetencies 211(1 text t0 be used - ^d that the course could be developed so that it 

could be taught as a semester course or a quarter course, the only thing left to do was begin work. 

At a second meeting the course development tasks were divided among the twn insfimtirmc m 

charged with developing the instructional modules and dealing with content issues. Peliissippi W wa s em 

An Intestate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 


Faculty Training: 

S' hiSTT^nZS 'T*"' iSSUe eari , y 0n Since ’ even thou 8 h one of the developers had experience 
using html, the other developer was a complete novice. The problem was how to best use the technical 
expertise and curricular expertise of these two individuals. 

The learning curve included developing a mastery of new software; working through instructional strategy 
issues many of which were discovered as a part of the instructional design process 

additinnpH m0nStr H te ^ § t0 2 ? m0lB audience - In hindsight and in the best of all possible worlds § 
additional time and training in the use of software products would have been very beneficial to all ’ 

involved. In fact, to ensure success and minimize attrition, early education and SinLg is esslntfi 

As Demse Grant of Northwestern was the content expert, the task of developing the instructional modules 
fell to her. Grant began with the existing medical tenninology class and proceeded to re-package it for 
delivery on the web. This required learning how to use a piece of software created for the development of 
web pages. Microsoft FrontPage 98 was chosen because it was available, relatively simple to use and 
compatible with other software used at both institutions. As time passed, she was also required to learn to 
ow to program using html. Northwestern provided some instruction in the use of the software and 
provided released time for the development of the class. Gaye Biyant of Pellissippi was Technical 
expert and as such worked with Grant to ensure an understanding of the course management software 
Bryant also managed the process of installing test files and test data banks in the Learning Manager. 

Uo pl 

The Design Process: 

JnL d f i8 , n r ce f was 1 8re u d up0n 0ver a of several months ™d took advantage of the experience 
knowledge of several other faculty from both institutions who were also working on web classes. 

Ms^BryanUef abcwuhetasknf ‘ “ V “ ° f * d ? ign team ° f faCulty and staff at Northwestern and 
s. aryant set about the task of creating a framework around which their web-based course could be 

developed. team members from both institutions were guided by the following considerations. 
Alternative delivery courses should provide for asynchronous instructional delivery. 

• Alternative delivery courses should be available on demand 

• Alternative delivery courses should include e-mail in the communication protocol 
Alternative delivery courses should provide for the participation in labs from remote sites 

Alternative delivery courses should allow for simulation 

Alternative delivery courses should include all aspects of the course of study or supplements to the 



An InteVstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

course of study that are made available to the student in a traditional class, 

r gn team agreed up °" ^ 

classes. These design consideratiorate^also^iscussed^i^ developers at PeHissippi. 

2. A common f 0 nrna-i.e.,-toS traditional course. 

4.' Cowsedeve^opmem ““r.^ “ d by a " deVel °P-' 

5 ' course m die w'eb.^ ^ ° nli " e “ h °“ Se dass in a P ilot P h “= before publishing the 

6. Each online course would contain the samp nr nt , ,e, • •> 

7. The syllabus format would be as similar to the trlditV 7 ^ ^ earnmg activities - 

web classes in Appendix A.) aditional course as possible. (See syllabus format for 

l^t^ ° f ri PanS ' ° f •>““ "»y P- there are a, 

deciston deals with ma n Whe " Creati " g a course for the web ' °"= 

student will be required to learn or master One of th I ° rganizatl0n of competencies that the 
format would be modular ThTsecond decision , V deC ,' S '°" S made Was that the design 
components such ^r" 0 " ° f the «me 

(See figure A.) * 8 ’ simulations, learning activities, assessment, etc. 


^BUS 212 Micio 3 oII Internet Explorer 

| J ffe Edit View Go Favoltes hep 

Technical I r s : i i ut e 

Jrife Of Sti dy 
Learning A^tivitipc f 

Pronurci ation 



Welcome to Northwestern Technical 

Anatomy and Terminology 
BUS 212 

Let us get started on the road to a Technical 
Certificate in Medical Receptionist, 

Instructor : Danis* Grant > . . ; V -. . .. ■ 





An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

3 Syllabua Microsoft Internet Explori 

— - v -~ s & •*?»»" v ~^ *»•- »• y 1A*A: " • ■ •' 

Technical (rj.iiut 

I eff^ SpPSj^J 

aaaSKBgm CK 13- Workingyith Micro softWindawSofW-* 

Bistructor: Ms. G. Sabins . 

FtiDne. '"705,764-3714 E-mail: RSabne@adniinl.v/alter.tec^ 
IS Crpdtl Hfs.: 3, 

Course Description 

Provides stu4en: with the interface concepts o: Microsoft Windows 
software and the; pppo^irit/ he sVills n a 

wide range of business s:tuatior.s. - •■•-.■-- 

Grant and Bryant chose to deal with the course competency areas in the form of instructional modules The 
competencies were the same as those taught in the traditional class. Modules were arranged to match the 
academic calendar. For this particular course a minor adjustment was required as Northwestern is on a 
quarter calendar and Pellissippi is on a semester system. However, because the course was developed in 

modules, it was a simple problem to resolve. The calendar of learning activities had both a semester option 
and a quarter option. F 

Each of the modules consisted of a self-contained instructional package including goals of the module, 
specific learning objectives, various types of learning resources, and assessments. By design, students were 
forced to satisfactorily complete a module before moving on to the next. 

The components of this course differed somewhat from those of other developers, but each developer did 
adhere to a mutually agreed upon course template, course design format, and page format. Typically, 
owever, all initial web courses developed consisted of units of study or modules, both online and off-line 
resources, learning activities, and examinations. The specific components of this course are described 

Home - This button brings you back to this page. 

Syllabus - This page contains a copy of the course syllabus. 

Modules - This is the backbone of the course. BUS 212 is broken down into 16 modules each 
containing a number of objectives. The student must successfully complete one module to progress 
to the next. At the end of each objective, a button exists that will link the student to the next 
objective. If at any time the students become lost, they can click the Module button on the side of 
every page and it will bring them back to the beginning. Upon completion of each module the 
student will be required to complete a test. Students who do not successfully complete the test may 
trace back through the module until they are able to successfully complete that module's test 


An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web~based Instruction 


Resources - This page contains online resources and URL hyperlinks. 

Pronunciation - This page links the students to a CD disk developed by the college and supplied to 

the students when they register for the course. It is a vocabulary list and aural pronunciation guide 
corresponding to each module. g 

Learning Activities - This page is a set of activities that help reinforce student learning These 
activities are referenced to each module and to the text. 

Examnations - This page contains all of the examinations. Examinations are drawn randomly from 

? ‘u T 1S JT a " ew for each student - The examinations are managed and 
g d automatically by The Learning Manager, a course management software application. 

Hardware/Software Issues 

Hardware issues were relatively easy to agree upon. Computer requirements for the class are as follows. 
Computer Requirements: 

Windows 95, 486dx or faster MacOs 7.5.5 or later, Power 
Processor, 8 MB of RAM or PC processor, 16 MB of RAM 

more, 14.4 kbps modem or or more, 14.4 kbps modem or faster 

faster, sound card, speakers. 

Internet An ISP is a company that can provide the software 

Service necessary for getting onto the Internet. Contact Provider your local ISP to set 
account. Without an ISP, it is impossible to take a class online. 

up your personal 

Email Since it is our primary form of communication, you must have 

Account an email address prior to applying or registering. Generally, your ISP will give you an email 
account. Please contact your ISP if you are unsure of your email address. 

Java You will need a JAVA compliant browser. For the Java Compliant capable browser we recommend 
Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0.2Web Browser (or higher) or Netscape Navigator 3.0.1 (or higher) You 
can download a current version free. 5 J ' 

Software issues presented some interesting options. The design tool chosen for this course was Microsoft 
FrontPage 98. It was the software being used at Northwestern for all of the web initiatives. It was 
compatible with the word processing software being used at both colleges, and all development team 
members agreed that, even though not perfect, it did result in an acceptable product and it had a short 
earning curve. However, even with FrontPage98, both developers still had to rely heavily on html coding 
to incorporate other multimedia resources and to ensure a pleasing and consistent format. 

The particular course being described in this presentation presented some unique problems as it relied 
heavily on sound and graphics. These problems were solved by using alternative integrated multimedia 
formats such as CD/ROM disks for the aural pronunciation guide and interactive graphics programs for 
nmnt and click anatomical identification programs. 


*• i 


An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 


Third Party Partnerships: 

The element that brought these two developers together and the element that binds this particular course 
together is The Learning Manager. The Learning Manager was developed at Southern Alberta Technical 
nstitute in British Columbia. Version 2.0, the most current version, is compatible with Windows 95. 

P hT C t beg T’ the Leaming Mana S er was bei "g use d at Pellissippi and so was a known 
svsttm t! n r0U8 U T mU n f deb attnbutes to the project. First, it served as an umbrella management 
J ' a .°^ e and restncted student access to the various components of the course; it tracked student 
progress; and it served as a gateway to other resources such as CDs, URLs, and disks. Secondly it served 

f ? T T,? fr ° m a teS ‘ bank ’ make thosc tests a '' ailable «o tl >e students at the propet time, 

Man a per f KC °? I 1 * SCOres ' ° ne major benef “ t0 usi "8 a software application like The Leaming 

Manager is that it frees the instructor from scheduling and grading examinations 8 


Lessons Learned: 

BUS 212 is now in its second quarter of operation. Considering the distance problem, the fact that two 
separate institutions were collaborating on its development, and the short development calendar the course 
has been relatively trouble free. However, we have learned some lessons. 

1 . 

2 . 




6 . 


8 . 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 






Any assumption you have about a student’s ability to understand hardware and software 
requirements for an online course are probably overly optimistic 

Student motivation is no mean issue. A mature, self-directed student will be much more successful 
than will one who needs constant or even intermittent attention. 

Every online student should have a password that is required to get into the course. 

Software packages that propose to solve all of your web publishing problems probably won’t There 

is no way to get around leaming html. 

Intuitiveness is in the eye of the beholder. What is perfectly clear to the developer is perfectly 
opaque to the student. F F y 

Excitement will sustain the developer early on drudgery will rear its ugly head after about three 
modules have been developed. 

Student misunderstandings take on geometric proportions and multiply like rabbits when using 
threaded discussion groups. 5 

The developer’s leaming curve is marked by mistakes. Trial and error are standard fare. 

l^pr^ablyXomi? 61 ^ ^ StUd6ntS a teacher can effectively deal with the first time a class is offered 

Attrition is going to be high, about 40%, unless stringent admission standards are applied 
Assuming an online student is relatively computer literate may be a dubious assumption ‘ 

Time and effort required to manage an online class of 15 students is about the same as that required 
to manage a traditional 5 credit-hour-class. 4 

Development of an online class will take approximately 6 months if a faculty member is released ■/, 


Developing acceptable assessment methods will be one of the major obstacles to be overcome ‘ 
The course will be ever evolving due to changes the instructor wants to make, changes in 
technology, and unforeseen problems that must be addressed 

Be wary of tying the online course too closely with a particular text. If the text changes or you decide 
to change texts, then the entire online course has to be revised. On the other hand the online course 
should be referenced closely with a text and not redundant. 


An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

http. //www. 

17 • * “ r institution <*« copyrigh, belongs to the college. Establish this or some other arrangement 
18 . Good Luck! 



Syllabus Format for WEB Based Courses 
Northwestern Technical Institute 

Credit Hours: 
Lecture Hours: 

Lab Hours: 

Course Name and Number 

Instructor Name 
Office Location 

Office Hours 

Catalog course description: 

Various disclaimer’s if required: 

Entry level requirements if needed: 

System Requirements to take full advantage of learning materials: 

Required text and other reference material including non-text based materials, including 
url of online bookstore. 

Recommended supplemental materials including non text-based materials 
Content by week, by topic, by unit, etc. (called modules ) 

Course competencies (called goals ) 

Instructional Objectives ( including knowledge skills) (called objectives) 

Learning Activities including online activities, text based activities, and CD-based activities 
Course requirements - assignments, term papers, projects, etc. with due dates 
Practice examinations - (called self-assessment) 



An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

1 I' o- .* 

“ W. .. „„ k , 

Evaluation procedure ( called assessment) 

Work ethic requirement 
Grading scale 

Policies and procedures for course operation 
Policy on academic dishonesty 

Communication with instructor and bulletin board policies and procedures 

Module Format 

Credit Hours: 
Lecture Hours: 

Lab Hours: 

Module Name and or Number 


Learning Activities: 

Readings, Text 
Readings, Links 
Pronunciation Activities 
Written Assignments 
Self Assessment- 

Communication With Instructor: 




Web-Based Class 

Course Name and Number 
Instructor Name 

Office Location 

Office Hours 




An Intarstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 


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An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

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An Interstate Collaborative Approach to Web-based Instruction 

http. //www. 

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SnHn?rTwio’ Department Chair, Allied health and Nursing, Northwestern Technical Institute, Rock 
Spring, GA 30739, email: ’ 

Ms. Gay Bryant, Department Chair, Office Technology, 
Knoxville, TN email: tn ns 

Pellissippi State Technical 

Community College, 

Dr Daryl Gilley, Vice President for Instruction, Northwestern Technical 
Telephone: email: dgillev @north western. tec. ea. ns 

Institute, Rock 

Spring, GA 30739, 



Moving Web-Based Courses to the Next Level 

Moving Web-Based Courses to the Next Level 

Dr. Roger Von Holzen 

Director— Center for Information Technology in Education 
Northwest Missouri State University 
Maryville, MO 

In their fear of being left behind, most universities have "thrown" curriculum materials out on the web 
and then announced that they are offering web courses. In reality, most of these materials are glorified 
syllabi. At Northwest Missouri State University's Center for Information Technology in Education 
(CITE), an effort is being made to move web courses to the next level. This presentation will provide 
examples of courses produced under CITE that demonstrate such attributes. 

Moving Web-Based Courses to the Next Level 

It seems as though nearly every article written and conference presentation given screams out about the 
urgency with which universities need to begin offering World Wide Web-based courses. The ensuing 
fear generated has led most colleges and universities to place curriculum materials out on the web and 
then announce to the world that they are offering web-based courses. In reality, though, most of these 
materials are glorified syllabi containing course outlines, reading assignments, and links to relevant web 
sites. Instead of being a paradigm shift, this is simply a reshuffling of the old correspondence courses. 

At Northwest Missouri State University's Center for Information Technology in Education (CITE), a 
concerted effort is being made to move web-based courses to the next level where a true change in the 
paradigm becomes evident. A critical component to this next level is the incorporation of interactivity 
into the web-based course materials. 

One form of interactivity is student-controlled tutorials produced using PowerPoint or Toolbook II 
software. Such tutorials should enable students to control the pace of the presentation and interact with 
examples and linked materials. 

Another form of interactivity that can be used is online quizzes. The quizzes can be generated either 
using the Toolbook II software or the built-in quiz options incorporated with web site management 
software. The quizzes can be used by the students to evaluate their progress through the course materials 
and/or provide the instructor with indication of student progress. 

One final form of interactivity that can help move a web course to a higher level is the incorporation of 
threaded discussions. Such discussions can be used to integrate students more fully into the learning 
process while aiding in the building of a web community. 

Through the examples listed above, web-based course materials can be moved well beyond the 
traditional correspondence course. But these suggestions alone won't create a truly interactive web 
course unless a concerted effort is made by both the instructor and the students to actively become 
involved in the whole learning process. 


1 of 1 


11/30/99 4:26 PM 

http://www.mtsu. eduy~itconf/proceed99/hall.htm 


Putting Real Presentations on the Web 

Putting "Real" Lectures on the Web 


Delbert L. Hall, Ph.D. 

East Tennessee State University 

In 1997, a faculty member at my university complained to me being asked to teach an online biology 
course. "I just want to give my lectures that same way I’ve always done them. I should not have to 
completely revamp the course and everything about it, just because it is taught via the Internet," he told 
me. Having spent his entire lifetime taking classes and now teaching in traditional classroom settings, 
the ideal of teaching an Internet-based course seemed to equate to be asked to teach his classes in a 
foreign language that he did not know how to speak. When he taught hearing-impaired students he had 
not had to learn American Sign Language. The university provided signers for this function. But, no one 
was going take his lectures and help him create the online course materials for his class. He explained 
that he was a biologist, not a computer programmer, so why should he spend countless hours learning to 
communicate via the computer so that a few students could take his course from their homes instead of 
coming to his class? 

As this faculty member poured-out his frustration about what he had been asked to do, I felt sympathy 
for him. I knew the man and knew that this was not a lazy individual, but one that saw this task as a 
waste of his time. Time that he wanted to devote to his research and to the vast majority of the students 
that he would teach in traditional classes. He wanted to be innovative and he wanted to help his 
department expand into new areas, but this just seems like an incredible amount of work with very little 
reward. As much as I wanted to help him I did not have a solution for his problem. 

In July 1998, 1 agreed to teach a course in Introduction to Theatre over the Internet be next semester. 
Remembering the plea for help that had been put to me about a year earlier by the biologist, I began 
investigating possibilities for helping me put my lectures on the Internet without spending huge amounts 
of time on the course. Since I would also be teaching a section of Introduction to Theatre via 
Instructional Television (ITV) during the same semester I would be teaching the Internet based section 
of this course, I wondered if there was a way to combine these two sections. I knew that several courses 
at East Tennessee State University are presented via videotape. Students in these courses go to the 
library and view videos that are made of their instructor’s lectures. One solution to the problem above 
might have been to create videos of the lectures and place them on the Internet using one of the 
streaming video technologies. Although this sounds good, the reality of video over the Internet was still 
a long way from being practical. Products such as Microsoft NetShow, VDO, RealNetworks' RealMedia 
and others have improved the size and quality of streaming video in recent years. But still, video images 
broadcast over the Internet are usually small and fuzzy compared to TV images, and are not suitable for 
displaying detailed drawings or text information needed in teaching. 

My investigation lead me discover that there were several software products that would allow me to turn 
PowerPoint presentations, along with a recorded audio track, into online presentations. Since I had 
extensive PowerPoint presentations to accompany my lectures for this course, this seemed to be a good 
option. Also, I had done some successful work streaming audio over the Internet using the RealAudio 
Server and felt comfortable with this technology. Two of the programs I investigated allowed large, 
detailed images to be displayed over the Web, and also allowed the user to "pause" the presentation, or 
start the presentation at any point desired. And one of these programs allowed the users to view these 
presentations from their Web browser without the need of a special client that had to be purchased. 
Fortunately, this program, AudioPoint by Competitive Edge Software, was also the most reasonably 
priced of all of the products I investigated. 

AudioPoint gets it name from the two programs that it uses to help create online presentations - 
Real Audio and Powe rPoint . About three weeks before the beginning of Fall semester, I purchased 
AudioPoint and began creating test presentations. AudioPoint has two parts: an Encoder for keeping 



I Ot L 


1 1/30/99 4:27 PM 

Putting" Real Presentations on the Web 

r . 

track of the time each slide in the PowerPoint presentation is displayed, and a Postprocessor for creating 
the actual online presentation files. I experimented with different image sizes for the presentation and 
different audio qualities. The images in the presentation are created in PowerPoint using the "Save as 
HTML" feature. After a little experimentation, I settled on making my images 512 x 384 pixels (half size 
of 1024 x 768) JPG images. This size images filled most of the screen when the monitor resolution was 
set to 640x480 or 800x600, two common resolution sizes. I also settled on encoding my sound at 8.5 
kps. This size was small enough to stream well over the Internet while having a respectable sound 
quality. With a little practice (I only created three test presentations before the beginning of the 
semester) I developed my skills for creating online presentations with AudioPoint. 

During the semester, I created fourteen lectures that were presented over the Internet. During my class 
that was broadcast over Instructional Television, I used the AudioPoint encoder to record the time each 
slide in my PowerPoint presentation that was displayed. This was done as I made my presentation to the 
students in this class. AudioPoint also recorded my cursor movements on the screen when I used the 
cursor to point to items on specific slides during the presentation. As I gave the presentation, the lecture 
was also recorded on videotape. I used this videotape to later encode the audio using RealEncoder 3.0, a 
free utility from Real Networks. Because the audio was created at the same time the encoder recorded 
the timings of the PowerPoint presentation, I was able to later synchronize these together. Next, the 
AudioPoint Postprocessor was used to create the processed audio file (an .RM file that will stream over 
the Internet using RealServer 5.0) and an array of other files needed to create the online presentation. A 
typical online lecture for my course lasted about one hour and took about 8 Meg of storage space on my 
hard drive. Neither AudioPoint nor RealAudio limits the length of your online presentations. 

Students in the class clicked on links on the class Web page to select the lecture that they wished to see 
and hear. This launched a Web page with an embedded player and automatically started the selected 
presentation. AudioPoint does require the user to have either RealPlayer 5.0 or RealPlayer G2. Both can 
be downloaded free from RealNetwork's Web site . 

AudioPoint2, the current version, does not work properly with the RealServer G2, only RealServer 3.0 
and RealServer 5.0. However, the G2 player, the newest version of RealPlayer, will play files streamed 
from RealServer 5.0. A new version of AudioPoint that will work with the RealServer G2 is planned for 
release in the summer of 1999. Free versions of RealNetworks' RealServers are available from their Web 
site at . 

AudioPoint worked extremely well for my needs. Creating my online lectures was easy and took 
relatively little time since the big job of creating the PowerPoint presentation was already done, and the 
audio was recorded when I gave the presentation to my ITV class. The students in this class reported 
great success in getting the lectures. In fact, many students in my ITV class also reported watching and 
listening to these lectures over the Internet when they missed the regular lecture. More information on 
AudioPoint can be found on the company's Web site at . 

Delbert L. Hall, Ph.D. 

East Tennessee State University 


lot 2 


1 1/30/99 4:27 PM 

Hypermediated Learning Environments 

Hypermediated Learning Environments: 

Students Collaborating with Technology 

H. Willis Means Mary S. Love 

Assistant Professor of Elementary Education Graduate Assistant 

Department of Elementary & Special Education Department of Elementary & Special Education 
Middle Tennessee State University Middle Tennesse State University 









Pre-service elementary education teachers enrolled in an educational technology course participated in a 
semester-long collaboration with technology. The course provided them with the opportunity to apply 
previously learned theory, assess, design, develop, and implement solutions to educational problems. 

The course culminates in the student identification of an educational problem: the design and 
development of a piece of hypermedia software to enable a learner to work with the technology to arrive 
at a potential solution. 



There are three basic ways technology may be used in a classroom: (1) as an instructional resource, (2) 
as a learning tool, and (3) as a storage device (Perkins, 1992). The proposed course is designed to 
provide the students with the opportunity design, develop and implement a piece of instructional 
technology that enables them to see how each interacts with others resulting in a solution to an 
educational problem incorporating technology. 

The philosophical foundation for re-design of Educational Technology in the Elementary School, is 
constructivism. Constructivists believe learners to be active seekers and constructors of knowledge and 
they come to the classroom with an innate curiosity and goals (Brooks & Brooks, 1993; Fosnot, 1989). 

A course having constructivism as its philosophical base is a problem-solving course featuring the use of 
authentic tasks, complex real-life problems, and the integration of knowledge and skills from a variety of 
resources in the search for the problem's solution. 

The primary feature of the course is the use of authentic learning contexts. This was be accomplished 
through a combination of anchored instruction and generative learning activities and to accomplish this a 
form of Grabinger's (1996) Rich Environments for Active Learning (REAL) were used. REALs are 
comprehensive learning systems that are characterized by the following: 



Lirt-i.-— i-in 

1 Ot 5 


11/30/99 4:37 PM 

Hypermediated Learning Environments 


f< l w ° f th f C °u rSe I s thC USe of authentic learning contexts. This was be accomplished 
rough a combmahon of anchored instruction and generative learning activities and to accomplish this a 

rn™ ° h ra - in ^ Cr S Rich Environments for Active Learning (REAL) were used. REALs are 
comprehensive learning systems that are characterized by the following: 

They are based on constructivist learning theory and philosophy 

They promote study and investigation within authentic, that is, realistic, relevant, complex and 
information-rich environments; F ’ 

They encourage students to assume responsibility for their learning, develop initiative, foster 
decision-making, and promote intentional learning; 

They cultivate an atmosphere of cooperative learning; 

They utilize dynamic, generative learning activities that promote high-level thinking processes (i e 

alysis, synthesis, problem-solving, experimentation, creativity, and the examination of a topic 
from a variety of perspectives); H 

They permit the assessment of student progress within context of realistic tasks and performances. 

(Grabinger, 1996, p. 668). 

The use of REALs in an instructional technology course encourages integration and comprehensiveness 
Integrapon (Hannafin, 1992) is the process of linking new knowledge toSd, modifying and enriching 
existing knowledge, and enhancing depth of knowledge about a topic. Goldman observes 8 

These environments are designed to invite the kinds of thinking that help students develop general 
skills and attitudes that contribute to effective problem solving, plus acquire specific concepts and 
principles that allow them to think effectively about particular domains 

(Goldman, et al, 1992, p. 1). 

Comprehensiveness refers to the importance of linking learning to reaUstic contexts rather than 
deconKxtua ' 2 ,n g and compartmentalizing it. The use of REALs guides the learner, mediates the 
nd " le . arn,n f and su PP° rts the tart decision-making. The content of the REALs is organized 

h f f° CUS '. s .“. pon projects that Promote problem-solving and linking of concepts and knowledge 
toward a solution within a environment. wiuwicuge 

Anchored instruction was used to provide the student with an opportunity to develop instruction that is 
responsive to the identified learning issues. This approach has certain advantages over the 

time 01 7nTl ^ ^ First ’ il develo P s P r0 J ect management skills such as creating a 

time-line, interpersonal skills needed to function as a member of a team, and learning how to allocate 

resources. Second, it facilitates the development of research skills including the ability to determine the 
nature of a problem, asking questions that elicit pertinent information, searching for new MoZTon 
eve oping new information, and analyzing and interpreting information. Third, it assists in the 
development of organizational and representation skills including the selection of and structure of 
information developing representations of information (text, audio, graphic, etc.) in a way that facilitates 
its understandmg, arranging the structure and sequencing of the information, and responding to equipment 
time, and budgetary constraints. Fourth, it provides the student with an opportunity to develop and nractice 

fnstnTf 110 " f 1S - F ; nal ! y ’ U , pr ® sen f s the student with an opportunity to think reflectively about what 
msmiction is being developed, how it does or does not meet the goals and objectives, and how it can be 

modified to better accomplish the learning outcomes (Carver, Lehere, Connell, Erickson, 1992). 


However much a student enrolled in Educational Technology in the Elementary School may learn about 


Hyperr'iediated Learning Environments 

t * “st T hno, °^ on the ie ™ ing **« * 

abl f to recognize how each “ 

rather, it is stodents^d appropriate fn^T ' 

us,ng various types of instmctional technology under the di^S^S^SlSSSXSS profeSal. 

m7 Twu mC , Um r P ? P0Sed b I Sche " in his 111166 works on reflective reaching and design (1993 
apoh-ati - ts^ -8 ■£• ? ° : n ^° d “ Ce the StUdent 10 • -‘aasroom theory, then a practicum in its 
to P iam to disten-'lSch^ %?'„ '° US6 instructional technology "must practice in order 

CaTom Sodi' A d w e„ ^ toden faS heZ Str'c 6 ^ b “‘ " 01 * 

are more like coaching than teaching “"S £££ ““ “ ^ 

^“ Cb0 " al design is 6 creative “^ty and the • reflective conversation" a student has with the materials 
| k a ?i' insights, meanings, and variant applications of technology. For several reasons it is almost 

Sn^nTS^nr “ ‘° deSig " and ^-ntSvelopmentel,”^' 

mibpSn-fnSn 0 " ° f designing 3,111 lh6 >™wi„g-i„.action that corresponds to it must be 

Designing must be grasped as a whole, by experiencing it in action. 

Designing depends on the recognition of design qualities, which must be learned by doing 
Description of designing are likely to be perceived initially as confusing, vague, arsons or 
incomplete; their clarification depends on a dialogue in which understandings and 
misunderstandings are revealed through action. 

Because designing is a creative process in which a designer comes to see and do things in new wavs 
no pnor description of it can take the place of learning by doing. k ’ 

(Schon, 1987, p. 162) 

This instructional model has been shown to be effective in helping students "become more thoughtful and 

Ca d n t P h e f r ^ in “ P-blem-solving 

Zn ’ P ‘ S , b (1991) found that this a PP roa ch was more effective in developing reflective teachers 
instructl0n - St0iber l00ked at 67 stu dents in a teacher education program with no 
Lound^ ZVn J T°T m " n f gem , ent 0r teachin S- She divided the students into three groups organized 
Z Z f f m ° del: technjcal > reflective, and control. The technical condition was bfsed upon 
the acquisition of concepts, principles and techniques and is comparable to the instructional model P 

str^ed^the cro^sZcti 11 Ed J catl0nal Tecbnol °gy in the Elementary School. The reflective condition 
tressed the construction of concepts and principles based on existing knowledge structures Using 

case-based learnrng the students focused on various aspects of the teaching process and is comparable to 

instmrWl d m f th0ds Proposed for this revised course. In the third condition, control participants were 
instructed in educational practices not related to classroom management. P P 

IntoS 1113 «» conditions. 

eite the technical or control conditions. Their ped“lo„mg cont ^ 

enWronmenu ^ studenl att,tudes ' The V a f sumeg more responsibility for developing posftive leatldng 
envtronments and expressed more concern about student attitudes than either of the two other grou™ In 

ERJC 32 

Hypeirnediated Learning Environments 

i" i(S Pr0bIem - S0, ™« The 

:^ 1 P ZT S of ,hemse,ves as so,ving probl - *”££ 22 %^^,^ 

^ualitati^ai^quanti^Uve^^e^ch^ombhf' UP ° n TV*** pri " dples and was supp ^ ^ 

practicums provided TlteZto fhe opZLTv ^ “ °" Wi ‘ h a " d 

can be integrated in classroom instruction, if also affords the^mftf" f 10 n aI Sltuatl0 "s where technology 

design, evaluate, and implement an inMrucS^wiSta^^!' 0pp f 0r,um !>' t0 assess - 
problem-a decided improvement over the decontextual.zed app^ch i«SsT“ 

Ho p] 


an educadoTa problem or 5EtaS^ Scho ° ls < N =‘ 18 > — requited to identify 

students were required to idS fhf n obTem - h , b ? USmg eleCtronic mentation software. The 
presentation to the analysis ’ and presen( an infomal 

the students were given approximately six weeks toim p lememTe?r e d d efigm UCt ' F °" 0wins the presen(ation 

assistant were available 0 ^^vid^awUtMC^Mtd^jdM^'nt^cIassroom^^ch^^rb* 6 ^'' 0 ^ 

“^““SrsToK S2£ “ on '. three “ pS - “ ™ :L 24 

individually or in * ^1° With Student ' s w °*i"S °" P™jects 

providing direction when requestedor as needed. "* aSS1Slance from each other - and the teaching staff 

of the props' wem of this «« 

we^^^stedto^a^f^ 1 ^^^^! 3 ^^^*©^ " “ ^ons of ^“ges^ 

the project's accomplishment of the stated instmctiona^ 11 ! 01121 /? C ]!^ n ’ effectlve use of technology, and 
encouraged to make comments about the projects. ^ S ° bjectlves ' In addition ’ the judges were 

designf and fm^^ma^rfaswdf^myfCTnm^t^^^'whh^fto m^e^abouuhe course. C ° UrSe ’ * ts 




g ■ - y - ars rr 

least two of the judges. differences in design and implementation were noted by at 

Hype ^mediated Learning Environments 

Th6y dS0 Ihe “ components of the course and the 

npp ] 


While the judges rankings did not result in a significant difference between the control group (projects 
from a prior semester) and the experimental group (the projects from the reflective pracfcum semester) the 

v^ue^/coh^ d 't P w° V,d t e S ° me P0SitWe indicators - First > students recognized the 

value ot collaborative learning in the development of a multimedia project. Second, the students seemed to 

FinalW°fhe fr0m & St “ d,0 ' ba ;> ed class than through formal presentations and instructor-designed activities 
ally, they were able to share amongst themselves a variety of ways electronic presentation software can 
be used to enhance classroom instruction. wuwdrecan 



Alexandria 0 ' H"*' 11 1 °nindfr;tandin g : Th e Case for constructivist , 

Alexandna, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 

Carver, S.M., Lehere, R„ Connell, T., & Erickson, J. (1992). Learning by hypermedia design: Issues of 
assessment and implementation. Educational Psychologist . 27, 385-404 

lnqUinng Lfarnm ' * tWIOMh for Teaching , New 

fw m\ S ' R h Pe “ Sin0 ’ A -' Sh t e ™ 004 RD - Garrison, S„ Hickey, D„ BransfordJ.D., & Pellegrino, 

. •• timedia environments for enhancing science instruction. Paper presented at the NATO Advanced 
Study Institute on Psychological land Educational Foundations of Technology-Based £am£g 
Environments. Kolymbari, Greece. 8 

SseSfor FHnJ! f 96) ‘ fr CH envir0nments for active leamin g- ^ D.H. Jonassen (Ed), Handbook of 
Re search for Educational Communications and Technolog y ( pp . 665-692). New York:Macmillan. 

Schon, D.A. (1983). Jh e reflective practitioner: How professional t h ink in action. New York: Basic Books. 

Schon, D A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new desien for teaching and lamina 
in theprofessions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. anu learning 

Teachem CoHege Iricss.~ e ^ ^ in dnd ° n ^ uc ^' nnal New York.- 

Stioter, K.C (1991). The effect of technical and reflective pre-service instruction on pedagogical 
reasoning and problem solving. Journal of Teacher FdimaHnn 42, 131-139. 


H. Willis Means 

Assistant Professor of Elementary Education 



f 6 


* * J r' 

uiaLCa naming Environments 

RO^SS 05 E ' ementary & Spedal Edu «lion 

Middle Tennessee State University 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37130 
email: hm eans@mt.<;n pH., 

Mary S. Love 
Graduate Assistant 

p D S ofEIementaiy & Special Education 

Middle Tennessee Stan* TTmW^, 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37130 
email: msl2a@mtstLerin 

MAPP: A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 


MAPP: A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with 

Chronic Illness 

Peggy O’Hara Murdock, PhD, Professor, HPERS, Middle Tennessee State University 

Christopher McClure, MAPP Project Coordinator, University of Miami School of Medicine, Department 

of Epidemiology & Public Health 

Onelia G. Lage, MD, Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, University of Miami School of 
Medicine , Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine 

Dilip Sarkar, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Miami . Department of Mathematics & Computer 


Kimberly Shaw, PhD, Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Miami School of Medicine, 
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine 



Goals and Objectives 

Program Design 

Methods and Materials 



Summary and Conclusion 




The Multimedia Approach to Pregnancy Prevention (MAPP) is an expert intelligence multimedia 
program administered in outpatient and inpatient clinics in the University of Miami/Jackson Children’s 
Hospital in Miami, Florida. The target population for the MAPP program is youths aged 9-14 years, 
diagnosed with chronic illnesses (asthma, diabetes, and sickle cell disease). Program sessions take place 
in a clinic setting, using a portable computer. Three sessions are developed on chronic illness and it’s 
affects on sexual development. The major aim of MAPP is to strengthen intentions to postpone sexual 
initiation and prevent pregnancy. Evaluation takes place by examining differences between a treatment 
and control group on pre-post tests at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. 



Studies of adolescents show that chronically ill/disabled teens are at least as sexually active as their 
peers, tend to have an earlier age of sexual debut, are more likely to have been sexually abused, have 
poor knowledge of sexuality, low self-esteem, low social integration, and have over protective families 
(Carrera, 1992). There is very little data on pregnancy complications and prevention programs targeted 
at chronically ill youth. The poor health outcomes associated with "normal" teen pregnancies such as 



1 of 8 


11/30/99 4:37 PM 

MAPP: A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 

http .//www. 

Studies of adolescents show that chronically ill/disabled teens are at least as sexually active as their Deers 
tend to have an earlier age of sexual debut, are more likely to have been sexually abused, have poor ’ 
“f of sexual,t y> low self-esteem, low social integration, and have over protective families (Carrera 
•n 7* 1 1S very little data on pregnancy complications and prevention programs targeted at chronically 
1 yout . The poor health outcomes associated with "normal" teen pregnancies such as inadequate weight 
gam during pregnancy, labor and delivery complications, low birth weight infants, and inadequate prenatal 
care are well known. These risks are compounded for both the mother and the infant when pregnant 
adolescents have a chronic illness (LaGreca, 1990). 

Parent participation in programs for education about healthy sexuality and pregnancy prevention is an 
important component for inclusion in pregnancy prevention for this population. When girls aged 12-14 
years were involved in pregnancy prevention programs with a parent-daughter workshop component it has 
been shown that they were less likely to initiate sexual intercourse than girls involved in assertiveness 
traming/resisting peer influence program components (Postrado & Nicholson, 1992). By conducting 
education during regularly scheduled clinic visits, the likelihood that parents will be in attendance is 
increased. There is also a need to include males in health programs to promote sexual abstinence, and the 
multimedia, computerized approach may be a way to engage young males in pregnancy prevention 

For younger aged youths (9-14) years, issues of confidentiality and disclosure of feelings about sensitive 
health issues are difficult and often guarded. Youths in the US tend to be shy and self-conscious in talking 
to their peers or partners about sexual issues. Physicians and teachers are not always available to take the 
time that is necessary to conduct discussions about health behaviors, medications, and illness effects that 
may impact sexual development and pregnancy outcomes. Thus, interventions are needed that protect 
privacy and confidentiality, and provide opportunities for learning and follow-up discussions with 
professionals and parents for youths with chronic illness. 

Personal computers are being used more frequently to deliver health information, to develop positive 
health behaviors, and to conduct health risk inventories and surveys (Skinner, 1993; Noell, 1997). 
Multimedia programs now have the capability to use graphics, animation, sound and video clips to enhance 
their appeal and to provide feedback to young users. 

In the Adolescent Medicine inpatient unit at University of Miami/Jackson Children’s Hospital, computers 
are already a popular choice for games and entertainment. In the Special Adolescent Clinic for HTV+ teens 
the computers provide information to HIV+ youths about their illness and are a way of collecting sensitive’ 
interview information in a confidential manner. 

There are unique characteristics of multimedia-based expert intelligent computerized programs that are 
important for pregnancy prevention among chronically ill youth. It has been demonstrated that youths 
prefer computers to human interviewing or advice for sensitive topics (Slack, 1971; Papemy, 1986). Using 
a Teen Health Advisor software program (Papemy, 1997), over 4200 adolescents reported that they 
preferred the computer to personal interviews about health and sexual practices (88% vs. 6%). Sixty five 
percent of the youths described the computer in positive terms, such as, educational, truthful and fun. 
Eighty-seven percent responded that they would use the computer again. In an evaluation of four software 
modules developed for British youth on sexual topics, the youths, particularly males, found that using 

computers in a game format was an enjoyable and informative way to convey information about sensitive 
sexual issues (Turner, 1997). 

Computer games concerning asthma have been shown to affect health behaviors positively among children 
^(Rubin, 1986), and computer assisted instruction has been shown to enhance interactive skills with regard 



MAPP: k Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 

tosexual.ty without sensitive personal exposure present in class or group sessions (Kann, 1987) Paoemv 
( 989) developed two computer games, "The Baby Game", and "Romance", for pregnancy prevention and 
placed them in six pediatric clinics for use by teenage patients. The clinics showed a 15% decrease in 
positive pregnancy tests for adolescents during the first year of use of the computer-assisted instruction 
w ich was attributed to the computer games. Feedback from parents and male patients was positive. 


Goals & Objectives 

The primary goal of MAPP is to strengthen the intention to postpone sexual initiation (and prevent 

pregnancy) using a multimedia based expert intelligence approach for youths 9-14 years with chronic 


The general objectives of the program are: 

1. To deliver an abstinence based curriculum approach to pregnancy prevention for youths who attend 
an adolescent medicine clinic that is specific to their disease diagnosis; 

2. To compare knowledge, attitudes and intentions about sexual abstinence in a group of youth who 
receive the MAPP approach versus those who receive standard care (SC) of print materials and 
physician advice only in clinic visits; 

3. To develop and deliver three modules using a multimedia expert based intelligence approach with 
strategies that are fun, educational and targeted to youths with a specific chronic disease diagnosis; 

4. To evaluate the results of the MAPP program in order to determine its effectiveness in changing 
knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions, and the training and demands on personnel time that 
are needed to install MAPP into the clinic setting. 

f TopI 

Program Design 

Approximately 150 youths diagnosed with asthma, diabetes, and sickle cell disease who attend inpatient 
and outpatient adolescent clinics at University of Miami/Jackson Children’s Hospital in Miami Florida are 
being recruited into the MAPP program. Youths who are determined to meet the eligibility criteria and who 
have parental consent are randomly assigned to either a MAPP program group (N=100) or the Standard 
Care control group (N=50). Changes that occur pre-post in knowledge, attitudes about abstinence, and 
changes in behavioral intention are measured between the two groups. 

L Topl 

Methods & Materials 

Subjects. Eligibility criteria for enrollment into the program include age (9-14 years); diagnosis with a 
chronic illness of asthma, diabetes, or sickle cell for at least 6 months; the ability to read and understand 
English; and, a willingness to attend at least two (or more) consecutive monthly scheduled appointments. 

Informed Consent. Consent for entering this program takes place through written consent forms for both 
jouths and their parents. The program has been submitted and approved by the Institutional Review Board 




MAPP^ A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 

for the University and the Hospital. 

Procedures. Youths are recruited into the MAPP Project based on patient appointment schedules for each 
of the clinics. While waiting for their appointment with the clinician, youths are actively recruited to 
participate in the project. Once eligibility criteria are established, youths are given a randomization packet 
to complete which includes the baseline questionnaire and study consent forms. The participant opens an 
enve ope w ic contains a randomization card, a user ID and password number (if appropriate to their 
group assignment). Only the user ID numbers are used on the information forms for fracldng and follow-up 
p rposes. Using the ID number and password allows the youth to log onto the computer and log files are 

kept of each participant and record the date and 1 PT1 CTfh nf fimo fKow l rt /v/>pJ f ~ ^ 1 - 

. - woR lug^eu untu tnc uumpuier, ana 

h P " S “ t0 quenes 1 tllat take P lace throughout the program modules. There are 3 program modules each 

a Z, U oT ? ' At '!? e " d ° f ModUle 1 (visit and Module 3 < visit 2 >- y ouths ** instructed 
to take a form to them clinician (doctor or nurse). Clinic staff will complete the forms and give them to the 
interventionist at the end of the clinic. S 

The project personnel are in the clinic to facilitate utilization of the portable laptop computers by the 
intervention group youth, set up racks with health information, and to complete the randomization packets. 

Materials. The 3 MAPP modules were developed by the study investigators and staff, which include 
pe latric adolescent medicine specialists, health educators, computer scientists, and adolescent 
psychologists. The message concepts of the 3 modules are based on the Managing Pressures Before 
Marriage - Postponing Sexual Involvement (PSI) program (Howard, 1996) and the March of 
imes-funded, My Health is Worth It” project. Scripts for the modules were reviewed by a Youth 

Prevent °0plDIfflS StUdy InVeStigators ’ and the consultams from the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy 

“ e d S °H tWar r m °S'7 ?T' 0ped for the MAPP P r0 S ram are graphic, animated, and include use of 
audio and v.deo clips. Module 1 consists of one module with three separate sub-modules, each one being 

disease specific. Modu e 2 is concerned with making decisions and dealing with peer pressure about 
initiating sex. n Module 3, youths leam to understand relationships and learn to handle peer pressure and 

sex in those relationships. At the end of Module 3, the project staff asks youths if they wish to participate 
in ongoing group programs at the clinic. F F 

Multimedia Based Expert Intelligence Development. The steps to the development of the multimedia 
program include: “ 

1. Documentation and Development of Ideas (DADI): 

Development of lesson content outlines; review of message concepts; incorporation of instructional 
& behavioral objectives; scientific group review (accuracy & age appropriateness); youth advisory 
group review, and, outline role plays, games & and quizzes 

2. Evaluation of DADI: 

Two focus groups of youth review scripts; determination of information and decision points; project 
feasiMity 1111116 SC16ntlfic accuracy; and> com P u ter specialist advises on technical aspects and 

3. Development of Story Lines: 

Development of logic flow charts including the list of situations, activities and decision points 

4. Development of Handout Materials (DHMs): 





MAPP: X Multimedia Instnjctional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 


Design flowcharts and outlines of handout materials reviewed by key program and clinical staff for 
content knowledge, accuracy and modification. 

5. Program Specifications and Design (PSD): 

Program development then takes place by the computer specialists and includes instructional design 
using computer-aided instructional methods and word processing. 

6. Development of Multimedia Components (DMCs): 

Designs, scripts and handout outlines delivered to the computer specialists who work with the 
animator/artist to develop the graphic art, animations, photo retouches and computer designs 

7. Revision ofDHM and PSD: 

Editing occurs of both the print handouts and computer modules to check reading levels text 

simplification and to complete a grammar and punctuation check. Print handouts to parents are 
translated to Spanish. F 

8. Integration of DMCs: 


Artist and programmers collaborate to create animations, artistic drawings and integrate sound 
Review of Integrated DMCs: 

Audio and video text are modified after a review by the Youth Advisory Group members and 
Program staff, eligible youths who attend the clinic pilot test materials, which are not age or 
disease-specific at this point. 

10. Final Clinical Setups: 

Installation of hardware and software. Set up a rack for handout print materials and developing 
procedures for maintenance and quality assurance checks of programs and equipment. 

Measurement Instruments. 

? e ' P ° St Questionnaire: A pencil-paper survey with 17 questions has been developed for the MAPP project 
from the Medical Knowledge Questionnaire, the Self-Efficacy for Abstinence/Contraception 
Questionnaire, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (for middle school youth). The questions were 
modified by study investigators to be age and language appropriate. 

Computer Log: Each youth in the intervention group will have a computer record on which data is entered 
each time they login. Data collected will determine the number and length of sessions they complete; the 
c oices an responses made to computer program queries; scores on quizzes in information activities- 
changes in attitudes and communications that take place between sessions with clinical support staff and 

figure modules ratin§ °" ** 6Valuation ° f the com P uter program for its ease, enjoyment and suggestions for 

Module Development Logs: Evaluation of the elements of module development are tracked during this 
process, by collecting variables, such as, amount of video, audio and animation, module themes software 
programming, and importing multimedia segments. 

Clime Checklist. A checklist with 5 questions is handed to the clinician who sees the patient for the 
medical visit. The clinician takes the checklist and asks general questions regarding the material in the 
modules, how this material makes them feel and if they wish to speak with anyone 

MAPF?- A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 



Process evaluation includes collecting measures on variables related to program timelines, technology 
development schedules, materials review, and feedback from committee members, project staff and 
consultants. All phases of the program are monitored to determine that the project meets timelines and 
completes the program’s goals and objectives and workplan. Process measures include: 

1. Advisory and focus group assessments 

2. Technology development and implementation monitoring forms 

3. Handout materials (brochures, flyers) counts 

4. Computer based feedback 

5. Clinician feedback forms 

Outcome evaluation includes comparison of knowledge and attitude change toward sexual abstinence and 
changes in behavioral intention to choose abstinence in both the intervention and the control group (as 
measured by the Pre-post questionnaire). 

The data analysis plan includes analysis of pre-post differences by chi-square and t-tests to test for 
differences between the intervention and control group on outcome variables selected (knowledge, attitude, 
and intentions). Descriptive statistics are used to summarize process variables and to determine if 
differences in participation and results occur due to age, ethnicity or chronic illness diagnosis. 

LTo pl 


Preliminary results of the MAPP program show that 45 adolescents have been recruited and determined to 
be eligible to participate in the program. Training has taken place in the clinics for 34 physicians nurses 
and child life specialists to date. At this time, 30 subjects with a diagnosis of Type- 1 Diabetes have 
completed Module 1. It is anticipated that the additional subjects will begin Module 1 during their next 
scheduled appointments in the clinic, and that additional subjects will begin the Module 1 for sickle cell 
disease and asthma in the near future. Due to the preliminary nature of the study, program effectiveness 
with regards to the outcome variables can not be presented at this time. 

From preliminary reports of subject and parent satisfaction with the program, the reports indicate great 
acceptance. Clinic personnel have also enthusiastically accepted the project, noting that it is readily 
implemented within the framework of the clinics and inpatient units. 

LTo pl 

Summary and Conclusions 

Currently, MAPP is the only multimedia program available to youths with chronic illnesses in the 9-14 age 
group that focuses on pregnancy prevention through an abstinence based approach. Another unique feature 
of the program is the focus on communication with parents and healthcare providers regarding questions 
and concerns about subject’s illness, its effects on their sexual development and future pregnancy and 
pregnancy prevention issues. MAPP is unique in its use of an interactive approach to promoting 
knowledge, attitude and intention change around sexual abstinence. 




MAP$ A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 


ihe experiences and preliminary results from development and the early implementation of the MAPP 
program demonstrate: 

1. Importance of involving youth in the planning and advisory process. Youths (aged 9-17) diagnosed 
with chronic illness provided valuable information to the scripts, graphics and animations used to 
convey the messages for the 3 modules. In order to ensure that language was appropriate to the ages 
of the youths, and that messages were conveyed clearly, it was necessary to hold focus groups and to 
pilot test the modules with the youths input. 

2. Using equipment that is portable and secure in the clinic setting. The laptop computers needed to be 
transported from clinic to clinic in order to serve both inpatients and outpatients. Installing 
computers in busy clinics, with interruptions to the subjects and the project staff requires that locks 
and security devices be placed on the equipment. 

3. Designing ways of ensuring confidentiality in data collection and in use of the program within the 
clinic setting. Placing only subject ED codes on the computerized program and on all forms helps to 
assure the youths that their responses are confidential. 

4. Training clinic staff and physicians in the use of the program and how it can benefit provider/patient 
relationships. It is anticipated that the communication and questioning about illness, sexual 
development and pregnancy from youths will increase as a result of being in this program. Training 
clinic personnel in the information and the messages that are transmitted in each of the modules can 
help to facilitate communication for both the youths and their health providers. 

ITo pI 


Carrera MA. Involving adolescent males in pregnancy and STD prevention programs. In SM Coupey & LV 
Kleinian (Eds), Adolescent Medicine: Adolescent Sexuality, Preventing Unhealthy Consequences. 
Philadelphia, PA: Hanley and Belfus, Inc., 269-281. 

Howard M & Mitchell ME. Postponing Sexual Involvement: An Educational Series for Preteens. 
Adolescent Reproductive Health Center, Grady Health System. Atlanta: 1996. 

Kann L, Warren C A, Harris WA, Collins JL, Williams BI, Ross JG, Kolbe LJ. Youth Risk Behavior 
Surveillance-United States, 1995. In: CDC Surveillance Summaries, September 27, 1996;45 (No. SS-4) 

LaGreca AM, Follansbee D, Skyler JS. Developmental and behavioral aspects of diabetes management in 

youngsters. Children’s Health Care, 1990;19:132-139. 

Noell J, Ary D, Duncan T. Development and evaluation of a sexual decision-making and social skills 
program: "The Choice is Yours-Pre venting HIV/STDs", 1997;24:87-101. 

Papemy D, Lehman R, Hammar S. Computer assisted detection and intervention in adolescent high-risk 
health behaviors, abstracted. Amer J Dis Child, 1986;140:293. 

Papemy DM, Stam JR. Adolescent pregnancy prevention by health education computer games: Computer 
assisted instruction of knowledge and attitudes. Pediatrics, 1989; 83(5):742-752. 

Papemy DMN, Computerized Health Assessment and Education for Adolescent HIV and STD Prevention 
in Health Care Settings and Schools. Health Educ & Behav, 1997;24(l):54-70. 


rvf 0 


A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 

Postrado LT, Nicholson HJ. Effectiveness in delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse of girls aged 
12-14: Two components of the Girls Incorporated Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy Program. Youth and 
Society, 1992:23:356-379. 

Rubin DH, Leventhal JM, Sadock RT. Educational intervention by computer in childhood asthma: A 
randomized clinical trial testing the use of a new teaching intervention in childhood asthma. Pediatrics 

Skinner CS, Siegfried JC, Kegler MC, Strecher VJ: the potential of computers in patient education. Patient 
Educ & Counsel, 1993;22:22-34. 

Slack WV. Computer-based interviewing system dealing with nonverbal behavior as well as keyboard 
responses. Science, 1971;171:84-87. 

Turner A, Singleton N, Easterbrook S. Developing sexual health software incorporating user feedback: A 
British experience. Health Educ Behav 27:102-120, 1997. 



Peggy O’Hara Murdock, PhD 



Middle Tennessee State University 
PO Box 96 

Murfreesboro, TN 37132 

Christopher McClure 

MAPP Project Coordinator 

University of Miami School of Medicine 

Department of Epidemiology & Public Health 

Onelia G. Lage, MD 

Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics 
University of Miami School of Medicine 
Department of Pediatrics 
Division of Adolescent Medicine 

Dilip Sarkar, PhD 
Associate Professor 
University of Miami . 

Department of Mathematics & Computer Science 

Kimberly Shaw, PhD, 

Adjunct Assistant Professor 
University of Miami School of Medicine 

Ma\P:"A Multimedia Instructional Program for Youths with Chronic Illness 

Department of Pediatrics 
Division of Adolescent Medicine. 

The MAPP program project is funded by the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs, Office of 
Population Affairs, DHHS. 

Hoe I 



^ of 0 


o/ii /no a 


Electronic Conferencing in Education: An Example from Social 


Kenneth Lancaster, M.S.W.,Ph.D. 

Department of Social Work 
Middle Tennessee State University 

Jack Stokes, M.S.W.,Ph.D. 
Department of Social Work 
Southeast Missouri State University 



Computer Technology and Social Work Education 
What Is Electronic Conferencing? 


Requirements for Electronic Conferencing 

Using Electronic Conferencing for Social Work Education 






The use of electronic conferencing in undergraduate social work courses is discussed. Conferencing 
increases student participation, encourages more effective relationships among participants, and provides 
additional feedback experiences. Faculty determined that selection of any computer application for 
courses be guided by specific teaching and learning goals and not by the sense of wonder created by the 
technology. When selecting computer technology for the classroom time saving and efficiency are less 
significant considerations than the quality of the education experience for the student. 

[To p] 


This paper describes the electronic conferencing experiences in undergraduate social work programs at 
Southeast Missouri State University and Middle Tennessee State University. The authors do not argue 
that our experiences with electronic conferencing would be the same in other settings or academic 
disciplines. The effectiveness of any computer application in an educational setting is dependent on a 
supportive infrastructure. Student access to computer labs, the time faculty can devote to learning 
software, faculty skill in the use of applications, and the level of financial support from the university or 
college are several factors that can determine the contribution of any information technology to the 
desired learning environment. 

[To p] 

Computer Technology and Social Work Education 


kriii, MiiiT7in - a^L*i 

1 of 8 


11/30/99 4:38 PM 


Computer Technology and Social Work Education 

The development and use of computer applications in college and university classrooms has expanded at a 
rapid rate over the last decade (Trow, 1997). Social work education has been part of this growth of 
technological innovation in the classroom (Caputo, 1990). Clearly there must be ongoing discussion about 
how the adoption of these new teaching and learning devices will impact student development and 
faculty-student relationships. The spread of information technology in higher education is problematic if its 
adoption is not linked to specific outcome goals. Technology decisions must not be driven solely by 
wonderment over the "bells and whistles" that it offers. The technology based activities developed for the 
classroom must clearly support the learning environments we wish to create. 

For the social work faculty authoring this paper our choice of computer software applications has been 
shaped by the goals of enhancing the learning environment for prospective entry level social workers. In 
addition, a practical consideration is that the demand for computer literate, and perhaps fluent, agency 
personnel is increasing (Gifford, 1998). Social work education must be especially sensitive to this latter 

The evaluation of student readiness for sensitive social work practice calls for a high degree of 
teacher-student interaction. We need to be sure that our students are both emotionally prepared and 
practically skilled for the demands of professional practice. The need to enhance student participation in 
class activities, build stronger relationships among students and faculty, and create more avenues of 
feedback for students should shape the technology that is used in the classroom. 

Stimulated and encouraged by the use of e-mail and course web pages, the authors found that electronic 
conferencing could further enhance the type of learning environment that we felt was appropriate for 
undergraduate social work education. This application is described below, followed by a discussion of its 
use in several social work courses. 

Ho pi 

What is Electronic Conferencing? 

Electronic conferencing is a computer-based method for communicating and discussing course-related 
issues outside the classroom. Conferencing provides an asynchronous learning experience that will 
enhance more traditional activities. Posting to an interactive, computer based "bulletin board" gives 
students and faculty opportunities to interact after class has ended. 

A variety of activities take place through conferencing. Assignments are posted to the conference board, 
questions raised by both instructor and student, and personal communication takes place between 
participants. As discussed in more detail below, conferencing encourages greater student participation in 
class discussions, expands student-faculty interaction, and provides a mechanism for expanding feedback 
for both faculty and student. By encouraging a wider range of dialogue among all the participants in the 
learning process, conferencing outside the classroom can construct and enhance what Petraglia (1998) 
refers to as an authentic learning environment of ongoing exchange and knowledge building. Just learning 
how to use the conferencing board, for example, becomes a collaborative experience that encourages and 
enhances other group activities. 

lancaster * 


An electronic conference has a variety of applications: 

• The instructor may use a board to disseminate information about assignments and class. 

• Lecture is enhanced by an asynchronous board as students post answers to discussion questions. 

• As an alternative, discussions on a board or chat session may be used as a substitute for some 
traditional class sessions. 

• A board and/or chat may be set up for students to collaborate with each other on class projects. 

• A board and/or chat may be used for a distance learning course. 

• A board provides the opportunity for instructors to more accurately monitor the progress of students. 

• A board creates additional opportunities for increased interaction between students and between 
students and instructors. 


Requirements for Electronic Conferencing 

Several important conditions contribute to the effectiveness of electronic conferencing. Conferencing is not 
a time saver but a means for enhancing education. It is more easily managed with smaller classes but it is 
productive with larger classes. Administrative expectations often dictate larger enrollments for classes. 
Conferencing technology can help to overcome some of the issues of quality that emerge such as limited 
student-faculty interaction and the sense of alienation that emerges when students become just faces and 
numbers in classes. 

Another foundation for effectiveness in conferencing is the commitment of the instructor to being actively 
involved in the process. Instructors must participate actively but not to the point that they dominate the 
discussion. Faculty must be comfortable with the idea of allowing students greater autonomy in the 
educational process. This may mean that faculty will be required to depart from traditional teaching 
methods of lecture and test and investigate other strategies that foster learning and growth. 

Faculty must also be sensitive to the fact that student skill in computer technology is highly individualized 
and varied. Instructors need to be sensitive to the reluctance of some students to use the technology while 
recognizing the advanced capability of others. There will be some students who have knowledge and 
capability that exceed that of the instructor. Faculty must learn to take advantage of this and not be 
defensive. The more knowledgeable students will be able to help those students who are less prepared or 
somewhat phobic about the use of any computer technology. Some class time is needed introducing the 
conferencing technology. It is common for students to encounter some problems initially, but since 
conferencing applications are user friendly, they rather quickly become proficient in its use. 


Using Electronic Conferencing for Social Work Education 

The authors of this paper found that electronic conferencing, supported by other educational technologies 
such as e-mail, course web pages, and presentation software, can improve student participation, enhance 
the quality of relational experiences, and provide effective mechanisms for feedback. Conferencing can be 
accessed through a course home page that contains the syllabus and other key links. By placing a link to 
conferencing in the course home page, assignments for the board are more fully integrated into the course 



a !*0 



The impact of conferencing on participation, relationship, and feedback is discussed below. These areas are 
not, however, separate and distinct processes. They are interrelated and circular experiences that support 
one another in a complex way. Student participation, for example, is influenced by positive, timely 
feedback to the student's postings to the board. By the same token, effective feedback enhances 
faculty-student relationships that will, in turn, lead to more productive student participation. The 
interrelated nature of the three activities is illustrated and described below. 

Students are excited when their postings on the conference are treated with dignity and seriousness. They 
begin to see themselves as participants in a larger teaching and learning process rather than simply passive 
recipients of "just the facts". The wide range of interaction offered by conferencing allows a complex 
interrelated process of participation, relationship, and feedback to emerge. 

Student Participation: An electronic conference provides an additional "voice" for students who find it 
difficult to contribute to classroom discussions. Large enrollments often limit participation and dialogue 
and many students fear personal humiliation by giving a "wrong answer." In addition, students may feel 
intimidated by other students and faculty who dominate discussions. Students are further discouraged in a 
traditional setting where communication ends by the clock. The electronic conference is less threatening as 
a means for students to share their opinions and ideas more freely. Another important benefit is 
conferencing removes the pressure of being "put on the spot" which students often feel in the classroom 
setting. They have the opportunity to contemplate and generate questions and responses at a time, and in an 
environment, that may be more conducive to creative thinking. 

The social work faculty noted that, when using the conference, students who were non-verbal in the 
classroom begin to interact more. They were more active in originating questions and posting responses 
and their participation in class increased. The following examples illustrate what has been observed as 
rather common student experiences in the use of conferencing. 

Sakina was struggling to grasp and integrate course information. She seemed closed and afraid to express 
her ideas. Her test scores were marginal and her writing lacked depth and substance. She did not participate 
in class discussions and seldom interacted with other class members. When asked a question directly, she 
became flippant and it was clear that she was self conscious, confused, and embarrassed. During an office 
visit with the instructor she said that she had always been afraid of asking a "stupid" question or giving a 
"stupid" answer. In addition, she felt intimidated and inferior to her student colleagues who seemed to her 
so knowledgeable and capable. Encouraging her to talk more in class failed to change her behavior. In a 
subsequent class Sakina was introduced to electronic conferencing. Initially, her postings to the board were 
guarded. Her postings lacked confidence and substance. However, after the first week Sakina became one 
of the most active participants on the board. The substance of her comments improved considerably, she 
posted questions, responded thoughtfully to the postings of others, and most interestingly, began to post 
thoughtful daily messages of encouragement. Her classmates responded with complimentary comments and 
many also communicated directly with her through personal e-mail messages. Students began to comment 
on Sakina's daily messages in class. She began to participate more readily in class discussions and her 
personal interaction with her classmates increased significantly. She gained confidence and the quality and 
quantity of her overall work improved. 

Sarah was a very capable student who tested and wrote well. Sarah, however, would not enter into class 
discussion unless questions were put to her directly. It was clear from her written work that she had much 
to offer the class through discussion. Although she was encouraged by the instructor to share her ideas with 
the class, Sarah just did not seem comfortable enough to spontaneously become involved in the discussion 
of issues. The class was a practice course and the first in the department to utilize interactive electronic 
conferencing to enhance teaching and learning goals. After she began posting to the conference board it 


i ,*rn 



became evident to her classmates and the instructor that her grasp of practice principles and social work 
values and ethics were very well thought out and integrated. She also articulated them well and connected 
them to real life scenarios. Students were able to gain much from Sarah's postings and would often 
spontaneously post a request for her perspective on issues related to practice. 

Tina was a very articulate and interactive student with a genuine desire for learning. She regularly asked 
questions in class and was always ready with an answer but was careful not to dominate the discussion. 
Tina was rather skilled in computer technology but had not experienced interactive electronic 
conferencing. She was eager to have this new and different opportunity initiated into the teaching and 
learning activities of the class. From the first day, Tina became an avid user of the conference. Through her 
involvement, she was able to expand her own learning and professional development while inciting the 
class and the instructor to greater involvement and integration. She read every student's comments and 
posted responses to every question. She raised the overall quality of responses by posting ideas that were 
substantive, carefully thought out, and tied to theory and practice. Her posts gave the instructor the 
opportunity to respond and pose questions that genuinely enhanced the learning experience for the entire 
class. Reflecting on the conference discussion in subsequent class sessions was very productive. In all 
likelihood, many of the questions that were generated through conferencing could not have been asked in 
class because of time constraints. However, because of the conference and the stimulation of a very 
capable and teachable student, learning reached a higher level in this course. 

The use of interactive electronic conferencing provided a valuable avenue for expression and participation 
for these students. They were empowered by the process. Their confidence and grasp of the social work 
knowledge, skills, and value base expanded as their participation increased. All participants found through 
this extended interaction, that they could learn much from each other. In addition, reading the postings of 
other students promotes creative thinking. Interacting with one another in this manner gives students the 
opportunity to evaluate their professional progress in relation to each other. In addition to facilitating 
learning, students also have an avenue for increased mutual support and constructive criticism. These 
opportunities support the development of meaningful collegial relationships. These interactions occur on a 
regular basis simply because the opportunity to communicate with each other is always available. 

Improving Relationships: Social work education regards two major outcomes as essential in the 
educational process: the student's acquisition and demonstration of the knowledge, skills, and values base 
of social work and the student's individual and professional growth and development. A key element in 
professional growth is the development of positive and productive emotional and intellectual relationships 
with other students and, perhaps as significant, with the instructor. Unquestionably, these relationships can 
be developed without the use of educational technology, however, interactive conferencing can facilitate 
and enhance the development of appropriate collegial relationships and a mentoring quality in relationships 
between faculty and students. Electronic conferencing increases the possibilities of realizing these desired 
outcomes because it provides a remarkably productive opportunity for interaction. Using this medium the 
instructor can post comments or questions to enhance a variety of teaching and learning objectives. The 
e-mail function offers another effective tool for increasing the frequency and the quality of communication. 
Instructors can respond quickly and frequently to messages students post to the board. The capability to 
generate a timely response makes it possible to seize a teaching moment that may otherwise be lost. 

This technology strongly supports individualization of the learning experience. It provides opportunities 
for the instructor to directly participate in the socialization and professional growth of the student and it 
fosters the development and maintenance of a genuine mentoring relationship. Instructors are able to 
transcend the regularly scheduled class time and the somewhat limited office hour. It is a way for faculty to 
actively relate our professional and personal concerns for students rather effectively and efficiently. It is the 
experience of the authors that most students benefit from this type of faculty-student interaction. Student 
comments indicate that the interchange with the instructor and other students makes them feel more 

• nfO 



connected to the class, the instructor, and the learning goals of the course. The following example is 

Pam was a "non-traditional" student— not unlike many others enrolled in the university. She was a single 
mother with three children and a full-time job. From the time she awakened in the morning she was 
running to meet her demanding schedule. Dropping her children at day care, she drove half an hour to 
class, arriving minutes before it began. She tried to be attentive but was often preoccupied and always 
appeared tired to the point of exhaustion. When class ended she left immediately to travel thirty minutes to 
her job. There was little, if any, interaction with her student colleagues. During the semester it was clear 
that Pam was not grasping the course content and her professional growth and development was nil. She 
was barely making it through each day. On rare occasions she came to the instructor's office to clarify 
assignments and discuss papers and upcoming exams. Questions about her overall well being would trigger 
a rush of tears. Words of encouragement and support and occasional phone calls from the instructor 
seemed to become lost in the frustration of her life. Pam was overwhelmed and feeling alienated and 
incapable. The demands on her time were creating incapacitating stresses and she found it difficult to feel 
successful in any area of her life. The semester was nearly an academic disaster for her. 

The following semester Pam enrolled in the practice course where interactive electronic conferencing was 
being used. In the past Pam had not had time to learn to use a computer. A useful computer was setting at 
home and had never been touched. This activity seemed overwhelming. After the orientation session, Pam 
experienced some problems accessing the conference board but she did not become discouraged. A brief, 
private session with the instructor was all that was required to solve her problems with the technology. The 
ability to communicate with Pam via the conference and the e-mail function was a welcome opportunity for 
the instructor. Having access to other students and the instructor opened up a new educational dimension 
for Pam. She began to interact with her classmates and the instructor from her home in the evening. It was 
possible for the instructor to genuinely offer positive critique, encouragement, and direction in response to 
her postings to the conference board. Pam often commented that the class experience was the most 
satisfying and growth producing experience of her life. Pam's interaction with her student cohort in the 
social work program moved to a new and productive level. She was able to develop an open and 
productive relationship with students and the instructor and her feelings of alienation were replaced with a 
sense of belonging. Her self-esteem and interaction improved considerably, as did the quality of her 
academic work. 

The instructor's opportunity to develop a responsive mentoring relationship with Pam is characteristic of 
what can occur through conferencing and use of the e-mail function for feedback, support, and 
encouragement. This activity holds considerable promise for individualizing the student, communicating 
regularly and honestly, and demonstrating respect and positive regard. 

Opportunities for Feedback: The authors stated earlier in this paper that participation, relationship, and 
feedback are closely interrelated and interconnected experiences in the pedogogical process. The common 
facilitating element that makes it all work is communication. The conference can be used to increase 
communication and provide meaningful feedback in a variety of areas. Instructor activities can include 
comments and guidance on questions or answers posted to the conference and personal encouragement 
related to scholarship or professional and individual growth. 

In one exercise using conferencing the instructor posted several ethical dilemmas involving direct services 
for clients and others related to agency and community issues. In responding to the cases students were to 
identify relevant passages from the National Association of Social Workers' Code of Ethics, point out 
possible multiple responses to the problems, and discuss the comments of other participants. Here feedback 
is not just a two way process from instructor to student but has become a multi-layered collection of 
feedback loops from student back to the faculty and to other students. This process of statement followed 



by a series of complex responses also stimulates in class discussion. In one exchange three points of view 
emerged in conferencing over the issue of client self determination versus the need for social workers to 
protect clients when their situation becomes self-destructive. The three points of view were used to 
develop three groups in class who developed arguments supporting each view. This process eventually led 
to some consensus over the specific case issue. This exercise was more efficient through the use of 
con erencing. By taking up only one class period for the three groups to meet instead of having to use what 
could have been two or three sessions to present the ethical dilemma, then develop the ideas or conflicting 
points of view and then have group meeting to form a consensus. The most important result, however, was 
in the students seeing their perspectives and points of view being treated in a serious manner. The class 
discussion became more productive. Students felt prepared for the in-class discussion. 

Testing via the conference board has excellent potential but has not been fully utilized by the authors. 
Generally, questions related to a particular topic are posted to the conference at regular intervals and 
responses may be evaluated and scored. This approach supports the teaching and learning goals of learning 
from one another and the opportunity to give and receive feedback. If a more independent testing situation 
is desired, the instructor may choose to have the responses of students e-mailed directly to his or her 
address. Secure testing using a variety of question formats such as multiple choice, true false, and short 
answer can be executed by some electronic conference applications. In one course the instructor gave the 
students the opportunity to work together in dyads and develop one of the course examinations. The 
students chose a question from the material discussed in class and/or the text and posted it to the board. 

The student dyads became moderators of their question and were responsible for providing feedback to all 
class members regarding their answers. In addition, student moderators graded the answers in consultation 
with the instructor. This gave students the opportunity to extend their participation to the teaching/leaming 
activity of testing. They were challenged in determining the significance of course material and 
participation in the collegial activity of critique. 

The authors of this article have also been developing a process of student interaction between our 
respective campuses. One group of advanced practice students in the final semester of field experience use 
the conference to communicate over assignments and field issues. Students from a class at another 
university also have access to the same conference board. Both classes have expressed a great interest in 
communicating with one another over student issues and experiences and some contact has occurred. 



Two methods of measuring the student experience are in process. A survey instrument will be administered 
to all students who used electronic conferencing in social work classes. The instrument will assess the 
stu ents perceptions of the usefulness of electronic conferencing as a teaching/leaming tool and measure 
the extent to which the use of the technology affected participation, relationship building, and feedback. 
Data will be gathered over several semesters and analyzed in the Fall of 2000. 

The second measure is a video-taped panel of students who have used electronic conferencing They 
spontaneously discuss the merits of the technology as a teaching/leaming tool and its affect on 
participation, relationship building, and feedback. The video taped is available for viewing. They gave 

support to the hypotheses of participation, relationship building, and feedback. Statements from the student 
panel included some of the following: 

• "I was much more comfortable discussing topics on the conference than in class. I learned a lot from 
the opinions of others and comments from the teacher." 

0 * 1,11 was nice t0 have some P lace t0 state y° ur opinions. I didn't seem like there was enough time in 






tL^onferenc^bTard. ^ V6ry0ne in the daSS after 1 got some feedback from them about my posting to 

"Using the conference made me more comfortable talking about the class topics.” 
t was great to have the instructor e-mail personal notes directly to me.” 

I didn t participate much in class because I felt I would say something stupid. The conference board 
gave me the opportunity to see that many students actually gained something from my comments It 

made me want to participate in class after awhile." 

The conference made it possible for me to have much more contact and involvement with other 
students. My work schedule made it impossible for me to come to school early plus I had to leave 
right after class and couldn't talk with classmates. After work I could read comments on the 
conference and respond. It really helped me understand the HBSE material. It was a great help to me 
as a non-traditional student who had to travel and had to work." 

"I liked Professor Stokes’s encouragement that he posted to the conference and the personal 
messages he sent by e-mail." 

"I really got to know other students in the class better. I felt more comfortable around them and took 

special interest in their learning, as well as my own. I guess I decided I had something to offer 

I didn t think I was going to enjoy the conferencing board when Dr. ... first told us about it but I 

found it was one of the most enjoyable parts of the class." 



For social work education, evaluation of student readiness for entry level social work practice involves 
more than just a measurement of knowledge obtained over a four or five year period. Care must be given to 
understanding the student's level of internalization of core practice values and in their potential to handle 
the emotional demands of what is a challenging line of work. Evaluation for practice readiness must 
include a high degree of interaction among all the participants in the learning environment. Student 
participation in class assignment activities is a means of measuring commitment to the work. Active 
interaction between students and faculty enhances the student's readiness for the complex set of 
relationships they will find in practice. 

Electronic conferencing can enhance participation, relationship, and feedback because of its ability to 
extend learning and interaction beyond the classroom. It provides an avenue for a continuation of learning 
through ongoing interaction with material from the class, extended interaction with classmates outside of 
the classroom setting, and the generation of topics and ideas independent of the classroom. Efficiency and 
speed can be overemphasized as justifications for the adoption of any computer technology for the 
classroom Electronic conferencing, with enhancement of the learning environment to meet specific 
e ucational goals, is one tool that can be an effective part of course work in a social work program. 

ITo pI 


£ ^J? 90) Information Technology in Schools of Social Work. Journal of Social Work Education 

Gifford, E. (1998) Social Work on the Internet: An Introduction Social Work 43 (3), 243-251 




Petraglia, J.(1998) Reality By Design: The Rhetoric and Technology of Authenticity in Education New 
Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 

Trow, M. (1997) The Development of Information Technology in American Higher Education Daedalus: 
Journal of the American Academy of Art and Science 126 (4), 293-314 


Kenneth Lancaster, M.S.W.,Ph.D. 

Department of Social Work 
Middle Tennessee State University 

Jack Stokes, M.S.W.,Ph.D. 

Department of Social Work 
Southeast Missouri State University 



http://www.mtsu. edu/~itconfi / proceed99/gray.htm 

JavaScript: Convenient Interactivity for the Class Web Page 

Patricia Gray, Ph.D 

Assistant Professor of Music 

Rhodes College 

What Is Java Script? 
Web Resources 
Suggested Reading 
Appendix A 
Appendix B 
Appendix C 


This presentation will show how JavaScript can be used within HTML pages to add interactive review 
sessions and quizzes incorporating graphics and sound files. JavaScript has the advantage of providing 
basic interactive functions without the use of separate software applications and players. Because it can 
be part of a standard HTML page, it is cross-platform as well. Templates will be provided to participants 
to enable them to customize their own pages without having to leam JavaScript in any detail. 



Interactive exercises are a valuable addition to class web pages. They allow students to review material 
and to get immediate feedback as they answer questions. A wide variety of software products allow 
teachers to customize quizzes and exercises for their students. Frequently these are platform specific or 
they require applications or players to be loaded on to the machine. By contrast, JavaScript can be placed 
directly into HTML text files and thus can provide an easy and economical alternative to the use of 
separate applications. 


What is Javascript? 

JavaScript should not be confused with Java. Java is a compiled programming language, similar to C. It 
has the ability to write major applications and insert them in a web page as a special object called an 
"applet." Java is also unique in its ability to run the same program on IBM, Mac, and Unix computers. 
Java is not considered an easy-to-use language for non-programmers. JavaScript, on the other hand, is a 
scripting language that can be used by average Web designers. It is particularly attractive to 
non-programmers because it requires no separate applications or compilers. It is simply scripted text that 
is incorporated into a HTML page to add enhanced interaction with the user. For this reason, it is 
attractive to educators who would like to take a step beyond putting class materials on the Web. 
JavaScript can provide a variety of opportunities interaction with students. 



11/30/99 4:38 PM 

? add enhanced interaction with the user. For this reason, it is attractive to educators who 
would like to take a step beyond putting class materials on the Web. JavaScript can provide a variety of 
opportunities interaction with students. ^ 



Itwou |d be misleading to say that JavaScript is as easy to learn as basic HTML. However, as with learning 
*"? ™,, best t0 8 e ‘ slarted is 10 stud y «* code for existing projects on the Web and adapt it. To see 
“ ° f he COde “ ,s 0nly " ecessary 10 View Page Source code, save it as a text file, customize it, and 
'““hi w t 1: ! " the Web Resources section below are a number of JavaScript resource sites available 
on the Web. The list contains archives of scripts as well as tutorials for those interested in learning to 

SSriy hd^ Pt The “ 0rial ^ ,aVaScript f0r the N on-Programmer published by is 

When adapting scripts it is important to be aware of copyright issues. Frequently, the text of the code 
inc udes instructions to keep the copyright notice in the code even after making changes. This notice may 
be commented out so it is only visible in the source code, not on the actual web page. Requests to 
include code should be scrupulously observed. F s 4 



JavaScript is particularly helpful in creating objective interactive reviews for courses that require the 
memorization of terms, translations, and other types of short answers. These quizzes can be used as part of 
class home pages that provide a wide variety instructional information. Cuirently at Rhodes, they are used 
only for review and not for on-the-record grades. Small class size minimizes the need for a distance 
learning approach to testing. However, online reviews that are available in the labs and wired dormitories 
are valuable in that they adapt to students’ variable study schedules. 

Student reaction to online reviews in Rhodes music courses has been overwhelmingly positive. Student 
valuations credit the exercises with "actively engaging" them with the material. Some of the exercises 
were created by the students themselves who were intrigued by the idea of producing study materials that 
will be avai able on the Web long after the class is finished. Students seem to be mofe critical of materials 
hey create for distribution over the Web than they are for work that is only seen by the professor 

JavaScript quizzes can be created as a collaborative effort between students and professor. They also have 
the advantage of being very easy to edit and update. * 

The following Rhodes College music course sites use JavaScript in a variety of ways: 

Music 227-228: European Musical Heritage himl 

Music 121: History of Opera (The Butterfly Project) 
htt p : // hrml 

Music 116: Music and Society 
hLtp:// 16.html 

A™™/ 1 advanta ? e °f JavaScript is the ability to save the code as a plain text file, store it on a 
CD-ROM and view it with any browser. This allows students to have portable review files that can be 



9/1 1 /on n a 

viewed locally without a live connection to the Internet. CD-ROMs of this type can now be produced 
easily and economically and can be sold along with the traditional text book. 



The following are examples of simple scripts that provide difference functions for objective online tests. 
Following the link to the test will demonstrate how its format. The abbreviated script in the appendix cuts 
away all be the essential code. The only sections that need to be customizes are indicated in red bold type. 

True-False with Hints Given After Incorrect Answers 
Abbreviated Script— See Appendix A 

Multiple Choice with Immediate Response to Each Question 
Abbreviated Script— See Appendix B 

Multiple Choice with Correct and Incorrect Answers Given after Submission 

Abbreviated Script— See Appendix C 

Multiple Choice with Penalty for Incorrect Answers 

[Script is too long to include in appendix. Download from source code at the URL on the preceding line.] 



JavaScript provides a streamlined, efficient, and economical way of providing interaction to web pages. 
Currently, adapting pre-existing code is best way for educators to begin to take advantage of it. This must 
be done in plain text documents because the most popular entry level web page editors do not support it. 
However, more professional products, such as Adobe's GoLive 4.0 . now provide some JavaScript editing 
capabilities and point the way to easier use in the future. 

Hop I 

Web Resources 


Javascript for the Non-Programmer: 

Thau's JavaScript Tutorial: html Tutorial: iavascript.html 

Script Archives: 

The JavaScript Source: 

The Last Wave JavaScript Source: 
Java Goodies: A Repository of Scripts: 


• of 7 AM i /A a a. c A A A f 


Cut and Paste JavaScripts: 
IX opI 

Suggested Reading 

Flanagan, David. JavaScript: The Definitive Guide, 3rd ed. O'Reilly and Associates, 1998 
ISBN: 1565923928 

± rentzen, Jeff, Henry Sobotka, and Dewayne McNair. Javascript Annotated Archives 
Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1998. ISBN: 0078823641 

Goodman, Danny. JavaScript Bible, 3rd ed. EDG Books Worldwide, March 1998. ISBN: 0764531883 

Heinle, Nick. Designing With JavaScript : Creating Dynamic Web Pages (Web Review Studio Series) 
O'Reilly and Associates, 1997. ISBN: 1565923006 

Lund, William B. and Brian Holman. Instant JavaScript. Prentice-Hall, 1996. ISBN: 0132684349 

Negrino, Tom and Dori Smith. JavaScript for the World Wide Web: Visual QuickStart Guide 2nd ed 
Peachpit Press. ISBN: 0201696487 

Neou, Vivian and Curt Aubley. HTML 4.0 CD with Javascript . Prentice Hall, 1999. ISBN: 0130957836 

Purcell, Lee, and Mary Jane Mara (Contributor). The ABCs of Javascript. Sybex, January 1997 
ISBN: 0782119379 


Appendix A 

Instructions for Use of Appendices 

Copy and paste the code into a plain text document such as one created by SimpleText or NotePad. Do not 

copy the text into an HTML editor unless you are sure that it supports JavaScript. Only the sections 
in red bold type should be customized. 



<TITLE>Opera Quiz</TITLE> 

<S CREPT LANGUAGE="JavaScript"> 

<!— hide from old browsers 
function userAlert() 


alert(" Very good!"); 


function userAlert2() 


alert("No, but a Pushkin poem was used for Boris Godunov."V 


function userAlert3() 


alert("It was a bass. Feodor Chaliapin was a famous Boris."); 


of 7 


4 I 

* <!-- done hiding — > 



<BODY BGCOLOR="#ffffff , > 

<H3 ALIGN=CENTER>Opera Quiz</H3> 

<B>1. The title role in Moussorgsky’s <I>Boris Godunov</I> is sung by a bass. </B> 
<FORM> <INPUT TYPE="button" VALUE=" True " onClick="userAlert()"> 

<INPUT TYPE^’button" VALUE=" False "onClick="userAlert3()" ></FORM></P> 


<B>2. Glinka’s <I>A Life for the Tsar</T> was based on poem by Pushkin.</B> 
<FORM><INPUT TYPE="button" VALUE=" True " onClick="userAlert2()" > 

<INPUT TYPE= ,, button" VALUE-' False ” onClick= ,, userAlertO'*^<’/FORM></P> 
</BODY> v 


I HqeI 

Appendix B 



<title>Puccini Heroine Quiz</title> 


<!-- hide 

/* GameQuiz v 1.0 by Monichar. 

Copyright (c) of Monichar, 1997. 

Permission to use, edit, etc. granted as long as the head section is intact* ) 


var ans = new Array; 
var done = new Array; 
var text = new Array; 
var score = 0; 
ans[l]= ”d”; 
ans[2] = ”c”; 

textfl] = "Puccini’s operas usually revolve around the heroine."; 

text[2] = "No, it was Musetta."; 

function Engine(question, answer) { 

if (answer != ansfquestion]) { 

if (!done[question]) { 

donefquestion] = -1; 

alert(" Wrong !\n\n Your score is now: " + score + "\n\n" +text[question]); 
else { 

alert("You have already answered that!"); 



else { 

if (!done[question]) { 
donefquestion] = -1; 

al ert( "Correct !\n\n Your score is now: " + score); 
else { 

alert("You have already answered that!"); 









<BODY BGCOLOR=”#ffffff’> 

<centerxH2>Puccini Heroine Quiz</H2x/center> 

This script will automatically check your answers for you.<p> 

<b>JavaScript required !</bxp> 

<noscript>JavaScript is <bxi>disabled</bx/i>. Get Netscape 3.0 or turn it on!</noscript> 


<b>l. The action in most of Puccini's operas seems to pivot around:</bxp> 

<input type=radio value="a" onClick="Engine(l, this.value)">the enemy<br> 

<input type=radio value="b" onClick="Engine(l, this.value)">the hero<br> 

<input type=radio value="c" onClick="Engine(l, this.value)">the chorus<br> 

<input type=radio value="d" onClick="Engine(l, this.value)">the heroine<p> 

<b>2. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes the Puccini Heroine as "frail creatures who 
live and die for love". This is true of all of the following except:</bxp> 

<input type=radio value="a" onClick="Engine(2, this.value)">Vio!ette<br> 

<input type=radio value="b" onClick=”Engine(2, this.value)">Manon Lescaut<br> 

<input type=radio value=”c" onClick="Engine(2, this.value)">Musetta<br> 

<input type=radio value=”d" onClick="Engine(2, this.value)">Mimi<p> 


<H4>Reload the page to take the test again.</H4> 




Appendix C 


<title>Prokofiev Test</title> 

<body bgcolor=#ffffff text=#l 11188 link=#CC6600 vlink=#006633 alink=#FF0033> 
<script language="JavaScript”> 

//function to display the answers 
function display_answers(){ 

if (document.quiz.answerl[0].checked = true) document. valuer" A”; 
if (document.quiz.answerl[l].checked — true) document. ,r B”; 
if (document.quiz.answerl[2].checked == true)” C"; 
if (document.quiz.answerl [3]. checked == true)" D”; 
if (document.quiz.answer2[0]. checked = true) document.quiz.a2.value=" A"; 
if (document.quiz.answer2[l].checked = true) document.quiz.a2.value= ,, B"; 
if (document.quiz.answer2[2].checked = true) document.quiz.a2.value=” C”; 
if (document.quiz.answer2[3]. checked = true) document.quiz.a2.value=" D"; 


//function total the quiz answers 
// assigns correct answers in array, 
function total() { 
var tot = 0; 

//answer#[0-3] 0=A, l=B t 2=C, 3=D 

if (document.quiz.answerl [0]. checked = true) tot = 1; 


if (document.quiz.answer2[3]. checked = true) tot += 1; 

if (tot=2) document.quiz.totalscore.value ="2 out of 2, Very Good!"; 

else document.quiz.totalscore.value = "You answered ” + tot + " out of 2 correctly."; 


<CENTER><h3>Prokofiev Test</h3></CENTER> 

<form name="quiz"> 

cable border="0 n cellpadding="7" width="600' , xtr> 

<td valign="top H width="300"> 

<B>1. Prokofiev received his early conservatory training in:</Bxbr>'itcon^proceed99/gray.htm 

A cinput type="radio" name= ,, answerl u >St Petersburg<br> 

B <input type= ,, radio" name= ,, answerl ,, >Moscow<br> 

C cinput type= H radio M name= ,, answerl ,, >Stalingrad<br> 

D cinput type= ,, radio" name= ,, answerl ,, >Novgorodc/td> 
ctd valign="top u width="300"> 

<B>2. All of the following are characteristic of Prokofiev’s early piano music except: c/B>cbr> 

A cinput type= ,, radio" name= ,, answer2">striking use of dissonancecbr> 

B cinput type-^'radio" name= ,, answer2 ,, >machine like rhythmic passagescbr> 

C cinput type= ,, radio" name= ,, answer2 ,, >strong sense of percussioncbr> 

D cinput type="radio" name= ,, answer2 ,, >Ieft hand lines modeled after those of Chopinc/td> 



ctable border= ,, 0">ctr> 

ctd width= n 300 n >cinput type= ,, button ,t value= ,, Submit ,, onclick^’totalQ; display_answers(); M >   cinput type= ,, reset l 

ctd width= ,, 400">cinput type="text" size= ,, 50 ,, name= ,, totalscore ,, >cbr>c/td> 



cCENTER>ctable border= ,, 0">ctr> 

ctd valign= H top" width= ,, 125">cb>Your Answersc/b>cbr> 

Q 1: cinput type="text" size="2" name= ,, al ,, >cbr> 

Q2: cinput type= ,, text" size="2" name= ,, a2">cbr> 

ctd valign= ,, top" width= ,, 125">cb>Correct Answersc/b>cbr> 

Q 1: cinput type="text" size="2" name="qr , >cbr> 

Q 2: cinput type^'text" size= u 2" name= l, q2 ,, >cbr> 





Patricia Gray, Ph.D 
Assistant Professor of Music 
Rhodes College 
Memphis, TN 



Using a Word Processor to Put Math Symbols on the Home Page 

Using a Word Processor to 
Put Math Symbols on the Home Page 

Katherine Creery 

The University of Memphis 




Saving Documents Using HTML 
Creating a New Document 


This presentation demonstrates the use of Word 97 and WordPerfect 8 to get mathematics symbols onto 
the web. Participants will learn to use the Equation Editor and web pages to make, or take existing 
documents and save them as HTML files. They will also learn how to draw graphics and add them to 
their web pages. Lastly, they will learn a simple way to organize them on their server. 

Using a Word Process to Put Math Symbols on the Home Page 


Putting math symbols onto a home page does not require the purchase of a special mathematical or 
graphics program. It can be done using word processors such as, Microsoft Word or Corel Word Perfect. 
The documents can be created in any version that has an equation editor, but must be changed into an 
html file using a later version that has this capability. This means that material already created can be 
converted to an html and placed on a homepage. There is no need to retype your work into a special 
program. Any new material can be created as a web page and easily saved as an html file. If you do it 
this way, you will not be able to make it back into a regular word page and have the image files shown 
on the screen. Therefore, if this is something that you would like to have as both a word document and 
an html document, start the document as a regular word document, and then change it to the Web 

The trick that is not clearly given in the directions of these word processor programs, is that when your 
program is saved as an html, one image file for each equation will be saved at the same time. If you are 
saving to a file folder that includes other things, the image files will be hard to find. In the word 
processors, the image files are numbered by the computer, and you have no control over the numbers. 
Therefore they can get lost in a maze of other image files in your folder. 




Pre-Planning : 

The solution is simple, but does require a little pre-planning. Make a file folder for each document you 
will be putting onto the home page. Save your document as an html to this file folder. Then you will 

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Using a Word Processor to Put Math Symbols on the Home Page 

have captured all of the image files that go with that document. The pre-planning comes in deciding how 
you want to name the documents for your home page. If you are going to have test reviews and solutions 
to the tests both on your home page and this will be for different courses, you will need to make a lot of 
different file folders on your hard drive or floppy disks. You will also have to have names for other 
documents like handouts, syllabi, quizzes, etc. Here is an example so you can see some possibilities: 

Name of item Abbreviated name 

Elementary Alg ebra test 1 review ealglrev or 08201 rev 
Elementary Alg ebra test 2 review ealg2rev or 08202rev 
Elementary Algebra test 1 solutions ealglsol or 08201 sol 
Elementary Alg ebra test 2 solutions ealg2sol or 08202sol 
Elementary Alg ebra factoring worksheet ealgfac or 0820fac 
Elementary Alg ebra syllabus ealgsyl or 0820syl 
Intermediate Alg ebra test ! review ialglrev or 082 1 rev 
Intermediate Alg ebra test 2 solutions ialg2sol or 08212sol 
Intermediate Alg ebra syn thetic division ialgsyndiv or 0821 syndiv 
Intermediate Alg ebra syllabus ialgsyl or 082 1 syl 

Keep your abbreviated names short and easy for you to understand. When appropriate, course numbers 
may be easier to use. The new word processing programs now allow you to use more than the old 8 
character name, but when you move this to your home page you will find that the shorter the better. 

[To pi 

Saving Documents as HTML: 

Once you have made all of the file folders on your hard or floppy drive, you are ready to start saving 
your existing documents as html. Be sure that your version of the program is capable of doing this, or 
find someone with a computer that can. If you plan to use someone else’s computer, you will need to 
make the file folders on your floppy disks. 

Follow the steps below for Microsoft Office: 

1 . Go to the word "File" on the upper left-hand comer of your screen, select new, and then select web 
pages and click OK. 

2. Next open your existing document (It will come up on a different window). Block it and copy it 
onto the clipboard. 

3. Go to "Window", click and select the unnamed document. 

4. Go to the paste icon and click. Your document should now be on your web page screen. 

5. Go to "File" and select "Save as HTML", then select the file folder you named for this document. 

6. Give your document the same name as the file folder and click save. 



For Corel Word Perfect the steps are similar. You will find what you need under "File" on the upper 

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11/30/99 4:28 PM 

Using a'Word Processor to Put Math Symbols on the Home Page 

left hand comer of your screen, then under "Internet publisher", and then select "Format as web 
document". To save you go to "File" then "Internet publisher" and then "Publish to html — > save a copy 
of the current document as html format". 

In your file folder, you should have the document you just saved, and an image file for each time you 
used the equation editor in that document. Repeat these steps for each existing document that you want 
on your home page. 

[Top i 

Creating a New Document: 

To create a new document to put on your home page, follow the steps below for Microsoft Office: 

1. Go to the word "File" on the upper left-hand comer of your screen, select new, and then select web 
pages and click OK. 

2. Now type your page as you would do in your word processor. 

3. Go to "File" and select "Save as HTML", then select the file folder you named for this document. 

4. Give your document the same name as the file folder and click save. 

For Corel Word Perfect the steps are similar. You will find what you need under "File" on the upper 
left hand comer of your screen, then under "Internet publisher", and then select "New web document". 

To save you go to "File" then "Internet publisher" and then "Publish to html — > save a copy of the 
current document as html format". 

Again in your file folder, you should have the document you just saved, and an image file for each time 
you used the equation editor in that document. 



Before you put your documents onto the server, you will again need to make separate file folders on 
your server for each document, to keep the image files with the document file. These should have the 
same names as you have already used. Each server is different, and there are different programs to put 
the documents onto the server, therefore if you are not familiar with the process, you will have to use 
your manuals/help to determine how to do this. From this point on, you will treat this document as you 
would any other in organizing your home page. When you create your link, you will only link to the 
document name and can disregard the image files. Your document file will contain the information to 
also link the image files for you. 

When your document gets onto your homepage, it may not look exactly as it was on the printed page. If 
you would like to change the way it looks you can edit them in your homepage. Netscape Communicator 
Professional Edition (This is free to educators and can be downloaded from the Netscape Icon on the 
Netscape screen) for this purpose. It generally works like any word processor. However, you will not be 
able to edit equations this way (Make sure the equations are correct before you put them on your 
server.), but you will be able to move their location on the screen. 

If you would like to include graphs or other drawings on you page you can. Use your paint program, 
draw what you need and save it. In Microsoft Office 97 there is a program called Microsoft Photo 
Editor. You will need to start this program, open the drawing from the paint program and save it as a 
JPEG file. This can now be placed in your document while on the Web page document. It will be saved 
in your folder when you save the program. 



5 014 


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Using a' Word Processor to Put Math Symbols on the Home Page 

* \ > 



Katherine W. Creery 

The University of Memphis 

Memphis, TN 38125 



Phone: (901) 755-1143 

IT op -1 

This information is free for your personal use 


4 014 


11/30/99 4:28 PM 


the Impact of Technology. ..and Learning: Student Perspectives 

Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: 

Student Perspectives 

Barbara Draude and Sylvia Brace 

Middle Tennessee State University 



Survey Results and Major Findings 



The use of instructional technology in higher education has increased substantially over the past several 
years. "Computer technology provides students and teachers with unprecedented opportunities to 
transform the teaching and learning process, from the most common and simple uses to the most 
sophisticated." (Sulla, 1999) Educators are readily embracing the challenges of integrating that 
technology into their teaching. However, authors and educators still question whether its use positively 
impacts the learning process. Research is beginning to focus more on the evaluation of the use of 
technology, but results remain inconclusive. (Sulla, 1999) This study on the effectiveness of 
instructional technology at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) from the student's perspective 
adds to this area of research. Results from the study provide valuable information that helps to determine 
measures for improving technology resources for MTSU faculty and students. 

MTSU is a regional university that services approximately 18,000 undergraduate and graduate students. 
Through five colleges and thirty-five departments and schools, MTSU offers instruction toward degrees 
in the basic and applied sciences, business, education, liberal arts, and mass communication. Efforts 
have been made over the last several years to provide educators and students with the resources 
necessary for the integration of technology. From early computer laboratories utilized by a small 
percentage of faculty and students to the recent opening of a new academic building equipped with 
forty-seven technology-based classrooms and an approximately 200-station computer laboratory, the 
administration has demonstrated its commitment to instructional technology as an integral component of 
the higher education experience. MTSU offers a campus-wide network, approximately 70 
technology-equipped classrooms, and over sixty computer labs for technology-enhanced learning 

A 1998 study of MTSU faculty assessed the impact of technology on teaching and learning. The study 
evaluated the effectiveness of instructional technology by measuring its impact on the depth and breadth 
of content covered, student performance, and good teaching practices that were widely acknowledged as 
catalysts for improved learning. Results showed that the overwhelming majority of MTSU faculty 
believe that instructional technology is essential and is being widely used across campus with different 
technologies accommodating different teaching practices. This study of MTSU students extends the 
1998 study by measuring student perceptions about instructional technology and the impact that it has on 


A four-part questionnaire was used to collect data in the study. Approximately 1900 questionnaires were 
sent to faculty teaching in master classrooms (technology-equipped classrooms) across campus. Faculty 



1 1/30/99 4:38 PM 

Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: Student Perspectives 


A four-part questionnaire was used to collect data in the study. Approximately 1900 questionnaires were 
sent to faculty teaching in master classrooms (technology-equipped classrooms) across campus. Faculty 
were asked to distribute the questionnaires to students. The questionnaire was pilot tested by a group of 
students and deemed a viable test instrument taking an average of ten to fifteen minutes to complete. Eight 
percent of all undergraduate students completed and returned the questionnaire. 

The questionnaire begins with a statement providing the purpose of the study and statements assuring 
anonymity and confidentiality. Questions give students an opportunity to express some general feelings and 
beliefs regarding learning styles and instructional technology at MTSU. The first section summarizes the 
wide variety of instructional technology applications and resources available at MTSU and encourages 
students to respond based on their general impression or feeling. In this section, students rate how much 
they agree with a variety of statements that measure their perceptions about various types of instructional 
technologies and their value in the classroom. Other questions ask students to rate their levels of skills 
using various types of technologies. 

The second part of the survey measures the frequency of use of various instructional technology 
applications by MTSU students and instructors. These applications include computer applications to 
present lecture outlines or demonstrate specific concepts; using audio/visual equipment to display 
materials; communicating electronically with instructors and other students; and supplementary use or 
development of materials such as web pages, computer-assisted instruction modules, and computer-based 
applications. In this section, students evaluate the effect of these applications on the depth and breadth of 
content covered, student performance, and good teaching practices including interaction with students, 
student collaboration, student participation and feedback, and expectations of student performance. 

The third segment of the questionnaire gathers information about the projected future use of instructional 
technology by MTSU students. Students rate the likelihood of a series of statements that regard their 
anticipated use/interaction with various types of instructional technologies within the remaining courses at 

The final portion of the questionnaire gathers basic demographic information such as academic standing, 
department, and discipline. An open-ended statement allows students to discuss why they feel instructional 
technology is or is not important. Students are provided with the opportunity to make additional comments. 


The survey results lead to several major findings. These findings give MTSU faculty and administrators a 
better understanding of the impact that technology can have in the teaching and learning process as well as 
assist with future planning. 

1. The Use of Instructional Technology Positively Affects Student Learning 

Ninety-five percent of responding students agree with the statement, "I believe that the use of 
technology in the classroom can enhance student learning." The study results show a strong 
correlation between the number of courses students had in a master classroom (a 
technology-enhanced classroom) and the positive effects of instructional technology on their 
learning. Students recognize better organization of course materials as one by-product of the use of 
technology in the classroom. They write that it makes class notes more legible, accurate, and 


Assessing, the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: Student Perspectives 

accessible. Comments include: ' Organization is better. Note taking is easier. You can listen to the 
instructor more while taking notes." "Instructional technology helps organize presentations and notes 
while widening discussion outside the lecture." 

Students also acknowledge instructional technology's appeal to different learning styles. Reasons 
vary from ones such as "it helps students visualize things that can't be drawn on a chalkboard" and " 
it better illustrates concepts" to others such as these: 

It facilitates teaching to students of all learning styles and makes it easier for instructors to 
supplement teaching with enrichment and extra activities." 

"It provides a visual learning source that can help you remember lecture materials." 

2. The Use of Instructional Technology Increases Student Interest and Satisfaction 

Some students find that instructional technology when used effectively can make learning more 
stimulating, interesting, or just plain fun. Students write that increased interactivity, added visual 
components, and variety in instructional delivery methods help to increase their satisfaction. Their 
comments include: 

"It allows diversity in teaching techniques and keeps material interesting." 

"It gets students more involved and interested in learning as it provides them with a more visual way 
to learn." 

3. The Role of Faculty and Their Ability to Use Instructional Technology are Major Factors 

While the responding students predominantly agree that technology provides valuable teaching tools, 
they often comment that "it is no substitute for a good teacher or for instruction." Numerous students 
note the impact that the use of technology can have on faculty/student interaction. Students write: 

"Technology can be a powerful tool but classroom success still depends on the quality of 
student/teacher interaction." 

"The use of email as a communication tool is essential. It is another way to initiate student/instructor 

The majority of the responding students feel they have the skills and knowledge to effectively use 
technology. The ability of faculty to use technology as an effective teaching tool is an issue for some 
students. Students express concerns about faculty who lack the proper skills to use the technology 
and faculty who misuse the technology. Comments from them include: 

"Some teachers use technology very effectively and others do not. Its effectiveness depends on the 
teacher's ability to use the technology." 

"Technology can be negative when a teacher loses creativity and energy just because he or she has 
become dependent on PowerPoint or videos." 


"I feel that instructional technology’s impact on learning depends on how well the teacher uses it. 

4. Certain Instructional Technology Techniques Better Facilitate Certain Learning Activities 

Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: Student Perspectives] 

The primary purpose of this study was to see what role, if any, technology plays in facilitating 
learning. Survey results indicate that technology does indeed- have an important role in improving 
conditions for good learning in MTSU classrooms. Students find that certain technologies better 
promote certain learning activities. 

Ninety-five percent of the respondents indicate that the organization of content covered is best 
facilitated by the instructor s use of computer applications to present lecture outlines and to 
demonstrate specific concepts. Most of the respondents recognize the instructor's use of computer 
applications as well as his or her use of audio/visual technology as having a positive effect on their 

understanding of the course materials. One student writes: 

Technology helps present information better. For example, we watch videos about ads that we 
would otherwise just have to imagine." 

The majority of the responding students identify electronic mail as the technology that best facilitates 
their interaction with the instructor, collaboration with other students, and feedback from the 
instructor. However, only fifty-percent of them have communicated electronically with an instructor 
or classmates about class projects. A student comments: 

The use of email as a communication tool is essential. It is another way to initiate student/instructor 
interaction that is beneficial." 

Eighty-five percent of the respondents select the instructor's use of computer applications to 
demonstrate specific concepts and use of audio/visual equipment as the technology techniques that 
most positively increased satisfaction with course outcome. 

5. Instructional Technology is an Integral Part of Today's Learning Environment 

Many of the responding students concede that technology is here to stay and that they must be able 
to use it effectively as they enter the real world. They acknowledge the role of instructional 
technology in helping prepare them for the future with comments such as: "Technology is 
everywhere. Its use in the classroom makes me feel good about my education and also teaches me 

things I will need to know when I enter the workforce." 

"It is undeniably the future. To ignore it would be disastrous to anyone's career. Learning 
interactively now prepares us for our future." ° 



The results of this study concur with results from the earlier faculty study. Faculty demonstrate their 
acceptance and adoption of instructional technology as a "good teaching" practice, while students agree 
that it significantly enhances their learning. As one student summarizes: ° 

Instructional technology, not only enhances learning through organization and clarity, but adds to the 
professionalism and atmosphere of the university, which helps motivate students to learn and participate." 




of 5 


On » rnrt O 

Assessing the Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning: Student Perspectives 

Barbara Draude, RN, MSN, CCRN 
Assistant Professor of Nursing 
Middle Tennessee State University 
Box 8 1/6 1 5-898-24 17 /bdraude@mtsn.edn 

Sylvia Brace, MBA, EdS 
Manager of Instructional Technology 
Middle Tennessee State University 
Box 226/ 615-898-2140/ 





Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

Mary Barone Martin 
Middle Tennessee State University 



The Muddiest Point 

Empty Outlines 

Minute Paper 

Double Entry Journals 

Course-Related Self-Confidence Surveys 

"To Use or Not to Use" Analysis 

Procedure Brochures 

Keystroke Reports 

Technology Maps 

Technology Chain 

Pen Pals 

Benefits Analysis 




Angelo and Cross have developed strategies for assessing teaching effectiveness at the college level. As 
they have stated: "College instructors who have assumed that their students were learning what they 
were trying to teach them are regularly faced with disappointing evidence to the contrary when they 
grade tests and term papers." Angelo and Cross have developed some written "instant" feedback 
techniques which they call classroom assessment techniques. Generally using ungraded activities, the 
goal is to measure the "current state" of the classroom. We will examine a series of assessment 
techniques which are most useable in the technological classroom. 

Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

Thomas A. Angelo and K. Patricia Cross have developed strategies for assessing classroom teaching 
effectiveness at the college level. As they have stated: "College instructors who have assumed that their 
students were learning what they were trying to teach them are regularly faced with disappointing 
evidence to the contrary when they grade tests and term papers." [1, p. 3] In order to address this issue, 
Angelo and Cross have developed some written "instant" feedback techniques which they call classroom 
assessment techniques. The assessments are generally ungraded activities which focus on current course 
work. The goal is neither research in pedagogy nor evaluation of individual students. Rather, the goal is 
to measure the "current state" of the classroom. The goal of their work is to present assessment 
techniques which are brief, yet effective, and can be used quickly in the classroom. In order to 
understand the characteristics of these activities, let us first examine a "case study" of one of the most 


1 ot / 


1 1/30/99 4:39 PM 

Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

techniques. The assessments are generally ungraded activities which focus on current course work. The 
goal is neither research in pedagogy nor evaluation of individual students. Rather, the goal is to measure 
the "current state" of the classroom. The goal of their work is to present assessment techniques which are 
brief, yet effective, and can be used quickly in the classroom. In order to understand the characteristics of 
these activities, let us first examine a "case study" of one of the most powerful of the classroom assessment 
techniques presented in Angelo’s and Cross’s book. After the case study, we will proceed to examine a 
variety of assessment activities within the context of teaching with technology. 

"The Muddiest Point" is an assessment technique which was originally developed by F. Mosteller at 
Harvard while teaching an undergraduate statistics course. [3] The basic strategy is to ask students to 
quickly jot down on a piece of paper the single "muddiest point" from the day’s lecture. The students 
submit the notes to the instructor, usually anonymously, at the end of the lecture. The instructor reports 
back to the students at the beginning of the next lecture by a) responding to the most mentioned one or two 
points, and b) briefly addressing as many others as possible and reminding students of additional sources of 
information. In a mathematics class, this is usually done by starting the next class with a well-chosen 
example problem, emphasizing the responses to the "muddiest point" notes while working it. Generally, 
there are no grades associated with this activity. The truly amazing aspect for this classroom assessment is 
that most often there are no more than two or three issues raised during this assessment. 

The muddiest point incorporates some of the most useful aspects of classroom assessment techniques. The 
greatest value of classroom assessment techniques comes from the combination of providing effective 
evaluation of on-going learning for the instructor and at the same time allowing the almost instant feedback 
from the assessment. Additionally, effective assessment techniques possess the following characteristics: 

• Improve instructor’s understanding of student needs and their perceptions of current material 

• Are immediately useable 

• Do not take up much class time 

• Are easy to administer 

• Are easy to analyze 

• Do not take inordinate time to analyze 

• Are flexible and can be useful for a variety of topics 

Typically, classroom assessments represent time saved in class since the instructor presents one or two 
examples and then can continue on with new material; sometimes, the questions can even be answered in 
the context of motivating the new material. From the students’ perspective, an immediate response to 
confusing questions allows a quick correction and students soon leam to take the process seriously. The 
whole process increases the trust between instructor and student; the instructor demonstrates concern for 
the student’s learning when implementing the technique and simultaneously receives information about the 
students’ on-going attention to the course. 

There are a wide variety of assessments presented in Angelo and Cross. [1, p. xiv] Each of them have a 
different "best use", a different learning purpose, and can be used by instructors in different manners. 
Longer techniques can be performed outside of class and may or may not include instructor grading. In 
each case, the major purposes for the techniques include assessment of: 

• Content comprehension 

• Analytic thinking 

• Student learning skills/processes 

• Students’ attitudes toward class activities 

^ The assessments chosen should be determined by the specific content/leaming to be measured and the 

Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

purposes of the instructor. In general, it is not a good idea to use too many different techniques in one 
semester. Student responses are more useful when the students are comfortable with a particular technique 
and understand it. 

Before addressing technological issues specifically, a few general comments about classroom assessment 
can be made. It is important to remember that the term "classroom assessment" refers to assessment of 
learning rather than grade assessment or educational research study. The goals are strictly to enhance "the 
continuous monitoring of students’ learning". [l,p. xiv] These techniques can be so simple that one often 
asks, "Can this really be useful?" or comments "But I already do this in a different setting." The results are 
still very revealing. "Completing the loop", that is getting the feedback to the student, is critical to 
maintaining the integrity of the process - students quit responding if there are no results. Finally, the 
assessment activities can be assigned in such a manner as to allow them to be graded; however, the most 
valuable are often the ungraded activities. 

When we speak of using technology in the classroom, we are speaking in the broadest sense: everything 
from calculators, computers and software to distance learning technologies. Although the argument can be 
made that most instruction involves the same pedagogical issues whether or not technology is involved in 
the instruction process, it is valuable to note that the dynamics of the teaching process can change with the 
introduction of technology. The two places where technological issues arise are in assessing whether the 
technology is providing an effective medium for the transfer of knowledge and whether the details of the 
use of the particular technology are being mastered. These two issues are at the heart of teaching with 
technology. Classroom assessment can provide effective analysis of each of these issues. To address the 
modification of existing classroom techniques, we will describe the general technique first and then 
suggest a modification specifically for technological issues. Techniques developed specifically for 
technology will then follow. 


The Muddiest Point: 

As described earlier in this article, the Muddiest Point assessment is clearly useful in most learning 
situations; it can be particularly useful in combination with instruction using technologies. In a distance 
learning setting, the muddiest point activity combined with e-mail or with a coordinating teacher/facilitator 
at the remote site can restore some of the interaction between students and instructor which may have been 
compromised. If a course is using technology for instruction purposes, the instructor can phrase the 
"muddiest point" question to assess the students’ self-analysis of their ability to manipulate the technology. 
Finally, an exceptionally helpful question for use in the technological classroom is "What is the muddiest 
point about the connection between the process used on the calculator (computer, etc.) and the principle 
being studied today?" The Muddiest Point assessment is one of the most versatile of the assessments. 


Empty Outlines: 

The Empty Outlines assessment [1, p. 138] has a name which provides a reasonably complete description 
of the technique. The instructor asks the student to outline some portion of the lecture in a limited amount 
of time. The student can be asked to start from scratch or the instructor may provide a partial outline of the 
lecture. This technique can measure student understanding and analysis or student listening. The first time 
the technique is used, the instructor may want to provide a partial outline before starting the lecture; this 
would allow the students to be prepared for the task at the end of the lecture. If results are mixed, the 
instructor may ask the students for feedback - did you not understand the concepts or could you not 
organize them? This technique has the added benefit that providing partial outlines can enhance students’ 

ClassrocVn Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

understanding of the technique of studying through outlining. 

With respect to teaching with technology, there are additional applications of Empty Outlines. Outlines are 
particularly useful in understanding multi-step processes. Thus, this technique can be used to enhance the 
understanding of the steps in a technological process. Alternately, the instructor may ask the student to 
outline the concepts studied and then provide notations in the outline where technology helped 
demonstrate a particular fact or theory. Finally, when using technology as an instructional medium, the 
provision for the Empty Outline assessment before instruction can help the students at a remote site focus 
their attention on the purpose of the lecture and improve their concentration. 

[To pi 

Minute Paper: 

This technique, also known as the One-Minute Paper [5] or the Half-Sheet Response [4], is widely used in 
college classrooms. Once again the name is reasonably self-explanatory. Near the end of class, the 
instructor asks the students to record on a note-card (or a half-sheet of paper) "the most important thing 
you learned during this class." One may vary the questions to ask about items left unanswered, ethical 
consequences of the issues discussed, or once again one could address the question of student learning by 
asking them "What is the one thing from class today that you would most like to revisit?" The general 
benefit of this assessment is once again to establish a level of listening and "on-site" critical thinking on the 
part of the students. The first few times you try this, you will need more time and you will need to be 
patient. As students learn to expect the question, they will be more prepared and you will have altered their 
classroom learning style. 

The Minute Paper can be used to address specific technological issues by recasting the question. The 
students can be made aware of the value of the distance learning environment by asking "What aspect of 
this lecture befitted from the use of the technology available in our distance learning environment?" The 
instructor can evaluate the students’ understanding of the use of technology by asking "Which facts (or 
theory) have been demonstrated today through the use of technology? Could they have been as effectively 
demonstrated without the technology?" If one is particularly brave, one can recast the question as "Discuss 
how the technology improved your understanding or explain how it confused you." 

Hop I 

Double-Entry Journals: 

The general description of Double-Entry Journals is that students make notes about the beliefs or theories 
in their assigned course reading. As a second entry in the journal, the student explains his/her reactions to 
or questions about the notes in the first entry. This technique is modified in Angelo and Cross [1, p.263] 
from a technique discussed as dialectical notebooks by Ann Berthoff [2] Depending on the emphasis 
desired, one can direct these journal entries to focus on different specific aspects of the course work. These 
assessments can benefit from being graded as they require more of the student and instructor time and as 
presented must in general be done outside of class. 

For technological purposes, the Double-Entry Journal can be modified to emphasize the value of the 
particular technology in the leaming/teaching process. One can request the students divide the pages in half 
in their journal; on the left side they can record a sample problem and on the right side they can record the 
steps of the technological process (in words, not keystrokes) used in the solution of the problem. If the 
learning environment is a distance learning setting, the students can be requested to divide in half the paper 
used to record class notes. They can take their notes during class on the left side of the paper. When they 


Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

are away from the instructor, they can then review the notes and record questions or comments on the right 
side near the related class item. At the beginning of the next lecture session, the instructor can start the 
class with the students discussing a portion of the questions and comments. This can provide the students 
in a distance learning environment with a greater sense of communication with the class as a whole and 
with the instructor. 


Course-Related Self-Confidence Surveys: 

The goal of the Course-Related Self-Confidence Survey [1, p. 279] is to allow students who feel insecure 
in a specific skills context to establish their level of insecurity and to allow their instructor to monitor and 
hopefully moderate their insecurity. Requiring a little more preparation by the instructor, a survey is 
designed which requests that students respond to questions about their self-confidence regarding specific 
skills. Skills analyzed might involve public speaking skills, specific mathematical skills, or technical skills. 
The students rate their confidence on a scale of "none. . .low. . .medium. . .high". 

Clearly, this technique is very useful when a particular technology is used as a tool in a course. For 
example, if calculators or Mathematica are used in a calculus class, the instructor needs to know if the use 
of these technologies is actually interfering with the learning of the theory. If a lack of confidence towards 
specific processes can be identified, the instructor can direct instruction and practice to improve the 
students’ confidence. In a distance learning environment, this technique can be used during the initial few 
meetings to establish a better "comfort zone" for the students who hesitate to speak "on-camera". 

Instruction using technology, whether the use is incidental to the material, concurrent with the coursework, 
or the substance of the course, introduces its own variations in the learning process. In the discussion 
above, some "standard" learning assessment techniques were recast for use in a classroom with a 
technological component. The remaining techniques are ones that apply directly to the technological 
interfaces in the classroom - although they too could be modified to a more general setting. The three 
general attributes of teaching with technology which must be measured are: 

• The use of technology in support of other content 

• The use of technology as the content being assessed 

• The impact of distance learning/ general use of technology. 

In all cases, we continue to use the term technology to encompass all equipment of a technological nature - 
the broadest sense of the term. 


"To Use or Not to Use" Analysis: 

The instructor prepares a sample problem or the description of a situation. The student is requested to 
discuss reasons why technology is or is not needed to augment a theoretical analysis and to conclude with a 
definite recommendation for the use of technology in the solution to the problem. The solution to the 
problem is not included in the student work, but a numerical rating ("Rank on a scale of 1 to 10) 
determining the critical need for technology is to be made by the student. In other circumstances, the 
question might revolve around the choice between two differing technologies. Depending on the scope of 
the course, the decision can be based strictly on a student’s personal choices or it may include a more 
objective cost/benefit analysis in an advanced class. This technique is used primarily to analyze the use of 
technology in support of other content; depending on the detail, it may be done inside or outside of class. 


Classroom Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 


Procedure Brochures: 

The instructor prepares a sample problem or case study and asks the student to form a one-page brochure 
which would provide directions for the solution of that type of problem. The student is to include a brief 
outline of the steps to be taken, references to the appropriate pages in the text, and notations regarding 
where technology is to be incorporated into the process. This is an assignment to be completed outside 
class and is primarily used to assess the use of technology in support of other content. It can be recast for 
use when technology as the content is to be assessed by asking the students to create a brochure delineating 
the directions for "operating the technology" in the sample problem. 


Keystroke Reports: 

Often, an early barrier to teaching with technology is assessing whether or not the students have learned the 
right sequence of "keystroke" or operational steps to operate the technology. In this assessment, the 
students are divided into pairs and given a sample problem to work. One student works the problem using 
the technology; the other student records the exact steps/keystrokes used by the student. The assignment to 
pairs can be made permanent and the students can share the results of their work. For simple technologies, 
a few minutes of class time are more than sufficient for the assessment. For more complicated procedures, 
this may be an assignment for submission at a later date. This is an assessment which is directed towards 
assessing the students’ ability to perform procedures using a given technology. 


Technology Maps: 

As a student learns to use more advanced features of a particular technology - computer, calculator, etc. - 
the student may have difficulty finding a particular menu, sub-directory, or button. For this assessment, the 
instructor asks the student to provide a map or a directory path for several operations or actions. For 
example, in a class using calculators, the student might be asked to write out the path to the factorial 
button. In a class teaching a spreadsheet, the student might be asked to write out a map to performing a 
certain statistical function. These assessments of the student’s ability to perform certain technology tasks 
can be undertaken quickly in class. 


Technology Chain: 

The goal for this assignment is to provide improved communication between students and to assess their 
ability to outline the steps in a procedure using technology. The instructor divides the class into pairs. 
Depending on the number of students in the class, the instructor hands a description of a process or 
procedure to one or more groups of students. Each group writes a description of the first step in the process 
of solving the problem and then hands the paper to another group. This group provides the second step in 
the process and then passes the paper to another group. The goal is to have each student group in the class 
provide at least one step. The instructor may take the finished products and compiles them into notes for 
the class, or the instructor may ask for the developed procedures to be read aloud. Do not do this 
assessment unless you plan to practice it often - students find the assessment difficult the first few times. 

Classrolm Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 


Structuring it as a series of relay races can sometimes help, depending on the character of the class. 


Pen Pals: 

Specifically for the distance learning setting, this assessment attempts to combine communication between 
students with a quick learning assessment. Each student is assigned a "pen pal" for the course. If there are 
students at two locations, the students should be paired so that one is from each location. The student is 
askea to write (or e-mail) one of the following: an outline of a particular process or concept, a paraphrase 
of a particular process, or a brief answer discussion of the most important concept of the day. If e-mail is 
not available, the teacher collects the papers during class and mails them to the facilitator of the other 
session for distribution to the pen pals. At the beginning of the next class, students can "read their mail" to 
the group as a whole. This can improve communication and comfort in a distance learning situation — 
although the logistics require careful execution. 

Ho pi 

Benefits Analysis: 

On a day which concludes the use of technology for the analysis of a particular problem, or on random day 
in a distance learning environment, the instructor asks the student to comment on the pros and cons of the 
use of technology for that day and write a concluding benefits analysis of the use of technology on that day. 
If this activity is performed for a distance learning class, it is important to ask the student to include the 
personal benefits in having the class offered as distance learning. In this manner, the student can be 
reminded that although the use of technology may come at a price, in most cases it provides access to a 
learning environment which would otherwise be unavailable. Other than the One-Minute Paper, this may 
be the best method to assess student response to a distance learning setting; if the students never develop a 
perception that the final analysis is positive, then the structure of the course can be reconsidered. 

The goal of classroom assessment techniques is to "take the temperature" of the class learning environment 
more frequently than practical if using graded, extended activities. Since the use of technology introduces 
new variations into the classroom, it is even more important to understand the dynamics of the classroom. 
When you find an assessment technique that works for you, it becomes a very comfortable and certainly 
revealing practice which can help determine the direction of your teaching. 



[1] Angelo, Thomas A., and Cross, K. Patricia, Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for 
College Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. 

[2] Bertoff, A. E., with Stephens, J. Forming/ Thinking/ Writing. (2nd ed.) Portsmouth, N.H.: Boynton 
Cook, 1982. 

[3] Mosteller, F. "The ‘Muddiest Point in the Lecture’ as a Feedback Device." On Teaching and Learning: 
The Journal of the Harvard-Danforth Center, 1989, 3, p. 10-21. 


of S 


Classroc^i Assessment Techniques Designed for Technology 

[4] Weaver, R.L., and Cotrell, H. W. "Mental Aerobics: The Half-Sheet Response." Innovative Hieher 
Education, 1985, 10, 23-31. 8 

[5] Wilson, R.C., Improving Faculty Teaching: Effective Use of Student Evaluations and Consultants " 
Journal of Higher Education, 1986, 57(2), 196-211. 

LTo pl 


Mary Barone Martin, Professor of Mathematics 
Middle Tennessee State University 
Department of Mathematical Sciences 
Murfreesboro, TN 37129 



Copyright in the Academic Environment: An Introduction 

Diane Baird, Librarian 
Karin S. Hallett, Librarian* 

. Middle Tennessee State University 

Fair Use 

Copyright in Libraries 

Copyright in Digital Environments 

Formalities and Definitions 





Copyright concerns, which affect resources and services in higher education, are presented. Topics 
include a brief overview of the history of copyright, a discussion of copyright components, copyright in 
the electronic age, and liability. Web sites addressing copyright are listed, and a bibliography of print 
and electronic sources is provided. 


Copyright is an issue of endless depth and complexity, particularly in academe. Yet, as educators and 
librarians we are required to have a basic understanding of its principles. We need to be aware of its 
implications for teaching and learning since we deal with ideas and information conveyed in copyrighted 
works on a daily basis. Moreover, understanding copyright in the electronic age, with new modes of 
communication and publication, poses additional and constantly evolving challenges. To what extent 
does the law enable teachers, students, and librarians to have access to information without infringing 
upon the rights of authors? How do we use protected materials in a fair way? As librarians, we cannot 
offer a comprehensive discussion of the topic but we can offer an introduction to the issues facing the 
academic environment. In the conclusion, we list sources for ready reference to facilitate an 
understanding of copyright law. 



Copyright is not a modem institution. The concept of copyright is over 400 years old. The protection of 
creative property had little impact early in history because copying was a labor-intensive, 
time-consuming, skilled craft that was expensive to produce. The arrival of the printing press changed 
the environment of copying and distribution. The emergence of this new technology made printing and 
copying fast, easy and inexpensive. But it also created an atmosphere of apprehension among copyright 
holders and copyright seekers. New issues arose and were brought to the forefront. It seems that 
technology has often been the impetus for taking a close look at current copyright laws. A brief look at 



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1 1/30/99 4:39 PM 

Copyright jn the Academic Environment 

S 6 Craf T W u aS expenslve t0 P rodu ce. The arrival of the printing press changed the environment of 
copying and distribution. The emergence of this new technology made printing and copying fast, easy and 
inexpensive. But it also created an atmosphere of apprehension among copyright holders and copyright 
seekers. New issues arose and were brought to the forefront. It seems that technology has often been the 
impetus for taking a close look at current copyright laws. A brief look at the history of copyright law will 
give us a better understanding of our current laws. 6 

The English Stationers’ Company, a membership guild that published the works of their members, was 
gran e a Royal Charter in 1557. The guild paid a lump sum to an author and the Stationers’ Company held 
the copyright. This limited most publishing opportunities to the wealthy and upper class and ever^ally 
created an unacceptable situation. In 1710, the Statute of Anne was enforced, which allowed the author of 
he work copyright for 14 years and, if the author was still alive, it could be renewed for another 14 years. 

In the United States, the Statute of Anne was in effect until the drafting of the U.S. Constitution by the 
e era Convention. The Convention deemed it wise to provide copyright protection stating that "the 
Congress shall have power.. .to promote the progress of science and useful arts... by securing for limited 
times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries " George 
Washington signed the first United States Statute in 1790, thereby establishing copyright and patent rights 
in America. This first statute was amended so frequently to include new formats, new technologies, art 
forms, and various creative efforts that it became cumbersome. Finally, in 1909, it was completely 
overhauled prompting Mark Twain to observe, "Only one thing is impossible for God: to find any sense in 
any copyright law on this planet." The new statute included many new formats and established a term of' 
copyright of 28 years plus a renewal of 28 years. The last revision, in 1976, included inclusive language 
that would not limit format or technology. This revision provided a term of copyright for the life of the 

copyright holder plus 50 years. In 1989, the United States joined the Berne Convention for international 
copyright protection. 

Copyright law grants the copyright owner five exclusive rights, which are explained in more detail below 
control of reproduction, preparation of derivative works, public performance, public distribution and 
public display. But it also encourages the availability of copyrighted works to the public and facilitates 
their accessibility and use. Copyright protects intellectual property just as other laws protect real property. 

ince the United States joined the Beme Convention, it is no longer necessary to register or display 
copyright. Two things are necessary: the work must be original and must be in a fixed, tangible medium 
Any work conforming to these two principles has the potential for copyright. 


Fair Use 1 

Copyright provides exclusive use of original works by the copyright owner. Yet, exclusive use by the 
owner would not do much in fostering a scholarly environment, or the exchange of ideas. Therefore the 
Fair Use Guidelines were implemented to establish a balance in the relationship between the rights of the 
copyright owner and the rights of the user of copyrighted works. Fair use assures learning is not impeded 
by copyright but still protects intellectual property. While fair use provides an avenue to photocopy 
copyrighted works for purposes of teaching, scholarship, or research, it does not allow the abuse of 
copyright under the guise of educational application. There are four factors that determine fair use as 
provided by the United States Code, and they are a package deal: 

The material must be used only for educational purposes without a hint of commercialism. 

The nature of the work must lend itself to photocopying a portion of the work. 

The amount copied should represent only a portion that does not impinge on the creative aspect of 
the work or portion copied. 


f 13 


Copyright jn the Academic Environment 

• The quality and quantity of photocopying does not affect the potential value of the work. 

The Fair Use Guidelines set the stage, but it was up to educators to apply them. Model guidelines are 
available from most professional groups involved in education: teachers, librarians, publishers, producers 
and researchers. The common goal is to adhere to fair use and address the concepts of brevity, spontaneity, 
cumulative effect, and prohibitions as recommended in the Fair Use Guidelines. Brevity would cover a 
chapter of a book, an article in a journal, a poem, or a chart; it would not be more than approximately 10 
percent of the whole. According to the Fair Use Guidelines, spontaneity allows the copying of material, 
which has just been found and is needed for effective teaching. Cumulative effect limits how much can’ be 
copied from one source or one author and curtails the number of copies and distribution of these copies. 
Each copy should contain a notice of copyright. f 

IT qp I 

Copyright in Libraries 

Two areas of concern regarding copyright in libraries are reserves and interlibrary loan. Photocopied 
materials placed on reserves for student reading and requested for scholarly purposes through interlibrary 
loan must adhere to acceptable guidelines. 


Materials on reserves often are photocopies. The same photocopied materials should not be distributed 
every semester/lesson plan period. Each student and the teacher can expect to have a copy for their use and 
the material should contain a copyright notice and complete citation. The copy should be free of charge 
except for the cost of actual photocopying. When material is placed on reserve in the library, the amount of 
materials and the number of copies should be within reason and contain a notice of copyright. According to 
the guidelines, five copies of an article can be put on reserve and nine articles can be copied for one course. 
The need for photocopied material that exceeds fair use should be collected in a course pack after 
copyright clearance has been received. The photocopied reserves materials should not have a detrimental 
market impact. Generally it is best if the library owns a copy of the work. All requests should follow 
American Library Association guidelines or the guidelines established for the local campus. Electronic 
reserves should be approached only after careful planning and should follow Fair Use Guidelines and be 
password protected. 

Interlibrary Loan 

Interlibrary arrangements are covered in Section 108 of the Act. Interlibrary borrowing and lending 
operations are expanding for practical purposes, namely to continue serving patrons in the face of 
decreasing library budgets and dramatically increasing prices, particularly for serial subscriptions. 

Naturally, publishers, who are the copyright owners in most cases, have a vested interest in keeping the 
number of photocopies produced low and the number of subscriptions, in the case of serials, high. 
Therefore, "The need is for a copyright standard that permits customary interlibrary operations, but that 
signals a reasonable limit and indicates when a library should reinstate its own purchase of the original 
work... The challenge is to. bring practical meaning to that ambiguous limit." Recommendations made by 
the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU), established by 
Congress, are generally adopted as guidelines by libraries. 

According to the CONTU Guidelines, "systematic reproduction or distribution" of copies is prohibited. 
However, certain photocopying or reproduction of a work may be within the limits of fair use, specifically 
js long as the photocopying or reproduction falls under the "Rule of Five." This rule stipulates that during 



• environment 

http.// n fi'proceed99/Bau 

one calendar year, no more than five arriH« Kr . 

Copyright in Digital Environments 

the most challenging to librarians and educators 

bnng U.S. copyright law into confonLnce^vfth recent t°" m r° ^ dlgital age ' The DCMAinfendYto 

media*’ ^ ”*** '» ^ e„vi ro „ J ent ^ s SfflSffl 

H of C °P^hte 7 d 6 ^ of the copyright owner with the 

17 of the U.S. Code. New Section 1201 stipulated ? MCA adds 3 new cha Pter (Chapter 12) to Tkle 
technological measures used by copyright owner, n n V* “ 1 ^ ° f U ' S ‘ ,aw t0 circumvent } 
information that copyright owners affix to a digital dn^^ th ^[ work ’ as well as to remove any copyright 
exceptions Of interest to academicians is the exception” d 1S prohibition is subject to various § 
ucational institutions to circumvent solely for the nnm 1C f P^™ 1115 non Profit libraries, archives and 
whether they wish to obtain authorized a Z t0 the ' f a° mai ?" 8 3 8 °° d faith det ™nation a to 
educational institutions have the right to codv and C L ?• A S °’ the DMCA stipulates that nonprofit 
preservation, in accordance with Section lol ° Iglta documents for puiposes of archiring and 

and disfance learnh^^ enVir ° nments discussed in more detail: nonprint works, the Internet, 
Nonprint Works 

Nonprint works include audiovisual and m„it' .• 

materials such as records, tapes, Audiovisual ma ^rials are "non-book 

and, are computer systems designed to capture stnr/ 1 e ° tapes ’ Mu, timedia materials, on the other 
types of information: text, picture sound 2^^’ r6trieVe ’ disp,a y and pla y back multiple 
present to qualify as a multimedia product." Nonprint wfriT V 6 °' At 16351 tW ° ° f the com P°nents must be 
same nghts apply. They may be duplicated in pd P are protected under the copyright law fhp 

Guidelines for Educational' MuWTO^i^educTtors Md^tuden!’'' 51 ’ 6 ' 1 ^ Committe « for Fair Use 

educational purposes for up to two the^ 1° PerCent ' Jt can be for 

a ^ ^ “ PieS Sh ° U ' d to c-ass use and 1° n 

Mr J *5 

Copyright in the Academic Environment 

• Is the copy for a face-to-face educational activity? 

Is the copy being displayed in an educational facility”? 

• Does the copy adhere to the Fair Use Guidelines? 


’igM e foZ 0 rTh°e f iS d f, ned aS .! he technol °S>' Priding the means of 

standard for using information transmitted through the InKm« Until revised ' is the 

guidelines for fair use. The non-requirement tn 3r,v met u DlgUlzed matenaIs are covered by the 
works from all Internet services including e mail annh^ 11 ! 8 ^ n0tl t0 a ° originaI work extends to 
misconception is that material on ^^TlntemeiTs ° F the W ° rId Wide Web ' A c <™ 

considered copyrighted and noUoofedTr^ lndeed materiaI 0n the Inteme t must be 

to avoid copyright infringement, possibly the bes” prartiL^rbTtrs 011 ' i" CaSC ° f Web P a S e s, in order 
link generally conforms to copyright and ter use sfnce it ™ L "J np J t0 a Webpage ' An Intemet 

copyright protected. These databases are genera., y pumped ^Miil^me "* 

E-mail," "? copyright infringement, 

definitely in a fixed medium UntessT 1™ , dlsc “ s s, °" list, is often informative, creative and 
assume it is copyrighted and sho^d be haTdtedfnTe “ pe ™ ssion for distribution, it is safe to 

distributed with die consent onhe original'amhor, oT citedas Tcop^ightecfwork.^ 1656 W ° r * <S s ^ ou *d be 

mgXgT/^ng ““ “ "" dear 

restrictions, which accompany the copyright are outlined n !j’ 3 c ° pynsht notlce ls displayed and 
of copyright and the license agreemenUnd thm is rhe eh' Unau . thonzed use and distribution is a violation 

Software can include computer programs, databases, CD-ROMs, 2 S'S"' ' iabi ' ity 

T ch same way - in “idontu 

the right to demand the Online Service Provider notify a ennJurn . opy/igiu Act gives the copyright owner 
Distance Learning 

m^criimBllefeS 'T USe “Pynghted works in distance .earning 

who are not in the physical mesenTnmh , 1 ,ean,,ng as a Nation where "one or more students 

techno, ogy." The’ “ ° f 
audio and video conferencing thp uLi *• * ■ modes of technology, including passive video 

satellite <rans“S^^ d — « d another via 

Since modes of transmission of instructional materials in a distance learning cihiati™ a * e 

, r Chon in a haditiona, setting, no, on.y the rights to use ^ZT^Zt^d bu, also 

ERJC 8 2 

twOpyngnt in the Academic Environment 

' ' the ri g hts f °r transmitting the course via some type of network- Th P ^ - i 

« a teacher from seeing copyr^S^lT^ laW 


Sps^^KissKa-ai sxdsSss 

IaWOffer , S sonw guldance on the types of materials that may be used, or may not be used in a 
remote site considered a classroom? V a 

fhe sumte ean ’ ,nS ^ * reCeived in a s,udem ' s honK ' ™ s ' h"*"* * «* within'the Lu o7' 

The delivery of educational courses via the Internet poses additional questions For its versatility allowing 

Intem^hTh 0 ““ COpyn ^ tedwo±s in different formats, including text, audiovisual, and software the § 
Internet has become a popular distance learning format. In order to deliver copyrighted works via the’ 

nhotnrn T ‘T" ™ st f estrict acces s to enrolled students." Further, the guidelines for classroom 

h!!! hf y r S H See t, ab ° Ve apply t0 the dellvery of an art[clQ via the Internet, meaning that permission must 
be sought to distribute copyrighted works in excess of these guidelines. For inclusion of v 

^° UrS f e J Veb Slte , permission from the copyright owner must be obtained. However, inclusion of ""short 00 
Clips of these works on a protected web site may be a fair use because the copying is de rn^n^is but 
including larger portions is not likely fair use." S minimis, but 

Unhl the Copyright Act is amended "to make it clear that distance learning is the modem equivalent of 

face-to-fece ms.ruct.on " better to be on the safe side and seek permissions. BruwSIeide reco^Lds 

ih!i De ' 0Pe [, S f may a ' S ° need t0 acqulre n 8 hts 10 ^ate, reproduce, and distribute any derivative works 

obS ?T , the C T e - Distributi0 " ^ <o send materials to distant learned 1" “ d t "° b f 

d,\ nhnu7n P ?° r * course develo P er must think ahead about possible uses that wUI affect 

distribution, transmission, and taping." 

Lastly, the aforementioned DMCA requires that the Copyright Office consult with representatives of 

z y ri?o c rt rs ' "°T fit , educationai institu,ions - and "° n P roflt ^ d -zsrsfsSter 

changes to coSe °" Pr ° m ° te education throu * h digital technologies." So look for 


Formalities and Definitions 
Copyright Notice and Registration 

How to protect your work from infringement? As mentioned earlier since the U S ha* th- u 
Convention in 1989 registering the work with the U.S. Copyright^ 

longer required. Instead, a work is automatically copyrighted as long as it is an "ori^nal work of 




Copyright in the Academic Environment 

' authorship" and "fixed in any tangible medium of expression." Yet, it would be a mistake to overlook the 
benefits of copyright notice and registration for a work of authorship. Placing the copyright notice "©" on a 
work not only provides important information to the reader, such as who the owner of the copyright is, it 
also helps prevent infringers from claiming innocence. Registering the work with the U.S. Copyright Office 
also provides the author with other important legal benefits. For example, if a copyright owner’s work is 
infringed before registration, the owner is entitled to remedies but cannot legally enforce his or her rights 
until the work is registered. "The copyright owner of a registered work may recover statutory damages as 
well as attorneys’ fees if a case goes to court. Also, registration clearly advises the public of the copyright 
for a work. In most instances, registration is required prior to filing suit for infringement." 

Duration of Copyright 

Published works created on or after January 1, 1978 are currently protected for the life of the author plus 
fifty years. Anonymous and pseudonymous works, and works made for hire are protected for seventy-five 
years from their first publication, or 100 years from their creation, whichever term expires first. A work 
first published more than seventy-five years ago is generally considered to be in the public domain. For 
example, during 1998 materials first published before 1923 may safely be assumed to be in the public 
domain and therefore be copied and even republished without copyright permission. Works created by U.S. 
Government employees during their employment are in the public domain. This, however, is not the case 
for works created by state and local governments, which may claim copyright. 

Similarly, unpublished works created on or after January 1, 1978 are protected for the life of the author 
plus fifty years. "Unpublished works might include diaries, letters, survey responses, manuscripts, 
photographs, art, or software - any type of work that has not been distributed to the public in copies." In 
the case of unpublished works created before January 1, 1978, however, the copyright will not expire 
before December 31, 2002. "Until then, the privileges of copyright and the limits of fair use apply to 
unpublished manuscripts, letters, and diaries of even America’s leading historical figures." 

Copyright Ownership 

The person who does the creative work is considered the copyright owner, unless the "work is made for 
hire." In such cases, the employer rather than the creator is considered the author and copyright owner. 
Independent contractors are not considered employees and therefore likely retain copyright ownership. 

Two or more authors of a creative work jointly hold copyright ownership. Joint copyright ownership 
allows each co-owner to use or license the entire work but requires them to account for all profits to the 
other co-owners. A co-owner acting alone cannot transfer the copyright to another party or grant an 
exclusive right to use the work without the consent of the other co-owners. 

Copyright ownership comes with the following exclusive rights, granted by the Copyright Act, which last 
for a specified time period (see above): 

• The right to reproduce or copy the work 

• The right to prepare derivative works 

• The right to distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public 

• The right to publicly perform the work (in the case of an audiovisual work) 

• The right to publicly display the work (in the case of a literary, musical, dramatic, or choreographic 
work, a pantomime, or a pictorial, graphic or sculptural work) 

Requesting Permission from Copyright Owner 

Copyright in the Academic Environment 

In order to use other people’s copyrighted works, written permission must be obtained. First and foremost 
the correct copyright owner must be identified, while keeping in mind that copyrights may be sold orTven 
away, permission letter should include a description of the material to be used and a detailed explanation 
of how it will be used. It should also include a place for the recipient to sign indicating that permission is 
granted. An affirmative response must be received, otherwise permission cannot be considered granted. 


Chapter 5 of the Copyright Act deals with the remedies for infringement. Remedies afforded a copyright 
owner are injunction, impounding or destruction of the copies and the equipment used to produce the 
copies, and recovery of all costs, including attorney’s fees. Monetary remedies may also be awarded. 

nowingly infringing on the rights of the copyright owner in a manner not within fair use may result in 
legal action If found guilty, penalties can range anywhere from $500 to $20,000 per work infringed upon 
J nd “J t0 $ 100 > 000 for willful, or knowledgeable infringement. Damages for "innocent" infringement may 
be $200, or even remitted for employees of educational institutions. "The courts shall remit statutory 
damages in any case where an infringer believed and had reasonable grounds for believing that his or her 
use of the copyrighted work was a fair use under section 107, if the infringer was: (I) an employee or agent 
of a nonprofit education institution, library, or archives acting within the scope of his or her employment... 
" In the case of willful infringement, the infringer may be criminally liable. In 1997, Congress amended the 
Copyright Act, adding tougher criminal liabilities for willful infringement, particularly in electronic media. 



In many ways, academe is defined by the conveyance of information from one party to others, with the 
university overseeing this transfer. The academic enterprise, therefore, is particularly vulnerable to 
copyright infringement, making awareness of copyright law vital for all educators and academic librarians 
alike. The Copyright Law is intended to balance the interests of copyright owners with the interests of the 
users of copyrighted material. The Fair Use Guidelines are particularly relevant for "nonprofit educational 
purposes. They assure the use of information for appropriate purposes, even without the permission of the 
copyright owner. This does not mean, however, that librarians and educators can violate copyright law. 
Rather, the following general guidelines must be considered before taking action: always apply the Fair 
Use Guidelines, always secure the copyright owner’s permission when in doubt, and, if necessary, seek 
alternatives. In addition, consider seeking legal advice and document that you have done so. Check 
institution policies or guidelines on copyright. Always act in good faith and use common sense. In short, 
you protect yourself best by erring in favor of the copyright owner. 

Changes in the information world continually challenge interpretations of copyright law. Therefore, we 
must stay current on legislation, particularly as formats for communication of ideas become more 
sophisticated. For a topic of endless depth such as copyright, there is an equally endless amount of 
information published. Following is an incomplete list of ready-reference sources. 




An sell, Edward 0., ed. Intellectual Property in Academe: A Legal Compendium. Washington, DC: 
National Association of College and University Attorneys, 1991. 


Copyright in the Academic Environment 

Besenjak, Cheryl. Copyright, Plain and Simple. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 1997. 

Bielefield, Arlene and Lawrence Cheeseman. Technology and Copyright Law: A Guidebook for the 
Library, Research, and Teaching Professions. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1997. 

Botterbusch, Hope Roland. Copyright in the Age of New Technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa, 

1 QQ£\ tr tr * 

Bruwelheide, Janis H. The Copyright Primer for Librarians and Educators., 2d ed. Chicago. EL: American 
Library Association, 1995. 

Crews, Kenneth D. Copyright, Fair Use, and the Challenge for Universities: Promoting the Progress of 
Higher Education. Chicago, EL: University of Chicago Press, 1993. 

Elias, Stephen. P atent, Copyright and Trademark: A Desk Reference to Intellectual Property Law. 
Berkeley, CA: Nolo Press, 1996. 

Gasaway, Laura N. and Sarah K. Wiant. Libraries and Copyright: A Guide to Copyright Law in the 1990s 
Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 1994. 

Johnson, Wanda K. and Derri B. Roark, eds. A Copyright Sampler. Chicago, EL: American Library 
Association (1996). 

Patterson, L. Ray and Stanley W. Lindberg. The Nature of Copyright: A law of Users’ Rights. Athens, GA: 
University of Georgia Press, 1991. 

U.S. Copyright Office. Project Looking Forward: Sketching the Future of Copyright in a Networked 
World. Final Report ( May 1998), by Professor I. Trotter Hardy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Copyright Office, 

Willis, Barry, ed. Distance Education: Strategies and Tools. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational 
Technology Pub., 1994. 


World Wide Web Sources 

American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) 

American College and Research Libraries (ACRL): Copyright Committee 

American Library Association (ALA): Position on Fair Use Guidelines in a Digital Information 



L-opyngtu in the Academic Environment 

* ^ ^ http://www mtsu - edu/ -' 1 tcon^proceed99/Balrd.htm 

' ' American Research Libraries (ARL) Office of Scholarly Communication 

Association of American Publishers (AAP) 

Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. 
The Copyright Website 

Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute 


Franklin Pierce Law Center: Intellectual Property Mall 

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis: Copyright Management Center 

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA): Position Paper on Copyright in 
the Electronic Environment V} 6 

http://www.ifla .org/V/ehph/cnpv him 

Manning and Napier Information Services: IpFrontline (Recent News, Trends, Technologies and 
Legislation) ° ’ 

Special Libraries Association (SLA): Selected References on Copyright and Special Libraries 

http://www.sla.o rg/membershin/irc/copvright.html 

Stanford University Libraries: Copyright and Fair Use 

University of Texas : 



in me Academic environment 

U.S. Copyright Office 

U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library/Intellectual Property: Copyrights 

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 

L Topl 


American Library Association: Model Policy Concerning College and University Photocopying 
Gopher://, document 
Classroom Photocopying, Music, Off-Air Recording 

Classroom Use of Videotapes and Computers Software - 1 .txt 
Ethical and Legal Use of Software 
Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia 
Fair-Use Guidelines for Electronic Reserve Systems 
UCLA: Library Copyright Policy 
HQ pi 



of 13 


8/11/99 9:52 AM 

m uic Academic fcnvironmeni 

htt P ://w^proceed99/B aird.htm 

*■ ' * ,o Cmrishtu - *■ *■ 

Ibid., 6. 

3. Ibid., 7. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Ibid. 

6 ' Snnfvnl M TT ed Humorous Anecdotes By and About Samuel L. Clemens. 

(Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1985), 92. 

7. Gasaway and Wiant, 8. 

8. Ibid. 

9. Model Policy Concerning College and University Photocopying. April 3, 1995. American Library 
Assoc, anon. Available: gopher:// Accessed SLh 

10. Ibid. 

11. Crews, Kenneth D„ Copyright, Fair Use, and the Challenge for Universities: Promoting the 
r™ 8 ™ °f Higher Education, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 98 

' Copyright OfflcOMS) 7 ? D ' sUal M>llemium Copyright Act of 1998 ([Washington, D.CJ: U.S. 

13. Harrod’s Librarians’ Glossary (Brookfield, VT: Gower, 1990). 

ft' i"7 Internat 10021 Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science. (New York: Rutledge, 1997) 

15. Bielefeld Arlene and Lawrence Cheeseman, Technology and Copyright Law: A Guidebook for the 
Library Research, and Teaching Professions, (New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1997) 135. 

. ruwelheide. Jams H., The Copyright Primer for Librarians and Educators, 2d ed (Chicago- 
American Library Association, 1995):89-90 

11 ' Steberi998H3'' ” C ° Pyrigh,: A Challcnge t0 Distancc Uamin 8- P ® >■" Information Outlook 2 

18. Gasaway, Laura N„ "Copyright: A Challenge to Distance Learning. The 1976 Copyright Act ” 

Information Outlook! (November 1 998)- 15 6 

19. Ibid. 

20. Gasaway (October 1998):43. 

21. Bruwelheide, 88. 

22. Bruwelheide, 7. 

23. Crews, Kenneth D., "Indiana University Copyright Tutorial: Message." March 2 - I998 - Online oosting 

Available E-mail: listserv@li . Accessed March 2, 1998. * 

24. Crews, Kenneth D„ "Indiana University Online Copyright Tutorial." March 4, 1998. Online posting. 

Available E-mail- Accessed March 4 1998 

25. Ibid. 

In' ?^ WS ’ Kenneth D > ," Indiana University Online Copyright Tutorial." March 6, 1998. 

27. Online posting. Available E-mail: listserv@list Accessed March 6, 1998. 

28. Crews Kenneth D "Indiana University Online Copyright Tutorial." March 9, 1998. Online posting 

Available E-mail: listserv@li Accessed March 9, 1998. 6 


Diane Baird, Librarian 
Karin S. Hallett, Librarian* 

Middle Tennessee State University 
P.O. Box 13 

Murfreesboro, TN 37132 



ai me Acaueimc bnvironment 

Names are listed alphabetically to indicate equal authorship. 




)f 13 


Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 

Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations 

Presented by Brenda Kerr 
Middle Tennessee State University 


Why Should Educators Include Audio Media in their Presentations? 
Learning Styles 

Examples: Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 

Literal Sounds and Non-Literal Sounds 

Functions of Sound as Used in Radio and Television 

Roles of Audio Media in Multimedia Production 

Aesthetic Factors of Sound 


Audio File Types and Platform Compatibility 

This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. Media 
examples, links for gaining more in-depth knowledge concerning this topic and procedures for adding 
audio media from any PC (Macintosh or Windows-based) can be referenced from the following URL: 
http : //www .mt su . edu/~itres . 

This topic was chosen because the author has observed many faculty members adding still images, 
video, and links to web and non-web documents to their presentations but few faculty members have 
taken advantage of the learning provided by audio media integration. In preparation for designing a class 
around this topic the author has begun the following investigation into research in the effective use of 
audio media in multimedia presentations. 


Why Should Educators Include Audio Media in their Presentations? 

Thompson, Simonson, and Hargrave in Educational Technology, A Review of the Research (AECT) 
reviewed studies conducted on the effectiveness of audio media on learning when accompanied by other 
forms of media. Their review of the studies offered the following suggestions : 

• Students can learn when various forms of audio media accompany other media. 

• The use of background music can increase achievement for some learners, but is probably not 

• The use of audio media with other media may enhance the understanding of content material. 

• The meaning of a visual message is often ambiguous and subject to personal interpretation. The 
use of words to direct attention is essential. 

• With visuals, some verbalization is better than no visuals, but there is no optimum amount. Slow 
speeds for transmitting verbal information are favored but they can be too slow. Rates need to be 
tailored to fit the student and their familiarity with the content. 

• When narration is accompanied by video the optimum rate of the narration appears to be slower. 

• The audio channel is much more capable of maintaining attention if it is used as an interjection on 
the visual channel rather than being continuously parallel with the visual. 



1 of 8 


11/30/99 4:39 PM 

Elective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 

tailored to fit the student and their familiarity with the content. 

• When narration is accompanied by video the optimum rate of the narration appears to be slower 

• The audio channel is much more capable of maintaining attention if it is used as an interjection on 
the visual channel rather than being continuously parallel with the visual. 

Types of Research Studies 

Evaluation Research is usually the first type of research done for each media type. Evaluation Research 
tries to determine whether people can learn from a particular form of media. It was found that given 
avorable conditions, students could learn from any instructional media. Media comparison studies were 
!ioo^° n ^ UCte ^ t0 ^ t0 d etermine if one media type was more effective in learning than another type 
( 920 s - 1960 s). Media comparison studies produced insignificant results. For every study that showed 
that a new medium was better, another study showed the opposite . 

Intra-medium studies were the next type of research conducted. Intra-medium studies examined the 
interactions among student, task, and specific media characteristics in terms of what happens when these 
variables were manipulated. They compare alternative methods of using a particular medium. According to 
1 hompson, Simonson, and Hargrave the design of these studies were based on Saloman’s 

observation that the effectiveness of a medium depends on the nature of the instruction. The major research 
question in these studies was "Which are the most effective instructional approaches using this medium 9 " 

A particular medium was used in all groups participating in the study. The independent variable was the 
instructional approach, not the medium itself . 

The next type of research conducted was Aptitude Treatment Interaction Studies. Aptitude Treatment 
Interaction Studies attempted to take into account student aptitudes in the research design Media 
researchers accepted a new paradigm. This paradigm acknowledged the interaction that occurs between 
external stimuli (presented by media) and internal cognitive processes that support learning (Clark 1988) 
Information about a learner was helpful in adapting instruction in order to provide an environment’in 
which particular learners can thrive. Clark tells us that media by themselves do not affect learning but 
rather it is the particular qualities of media or a specific medium that "affects particular cognitive processes 
that are relevant for students with specific aptitudes to learn particular knowledge or skills" Research in 
Aptitude Treatment Interaction Studies have led people to recognize "the importance of different learning 
styles and methods of processing information as well as the correlation that exists between learner 
variables and content treatments. 


Learning Styles 

Gordon (1998) researched the relevance of learner characteristics and learning styles when planning law 
school courses. He identified the four major learning modalities, kinesthetic, tactual, auditory, and visual. 
Kinesthetic learners and auditory learners seemed to benefit the most by the integration of audio media into 
teaching strategies. Gordon’s table below provides a list of suggested teaching techniques based on 
learning modalities. He does not provide data on the tactual learner . 

*iu4uiueaiu nesentauons 



This student wtll benefit from hearing audio tapes, rote oral practice 
lecture or a class discussion. This student will benefit from tutoring ’ 1 

another or deltvering an explanation to hisdter study group one the j 

Visual ) 

This student will benefit from worksheets, workbooks, and texts Given 
some „me alone with a book, this student may learn more th^ the ^lass. ! 

Examples: Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 

foreeelements ot^oun^used^mu^m^^prcsen utions 8 He lists the 
to stimulate learning through the functions they serve and roles 6 they prov^D 56 .elements should be used 
summarized in the next few pages. * 1 ttiey provide - Daniels’ ideas are 

Elements of sound 

Stes^^ effects, and music. Silence and its 

discussed in the next three sections of this na^er It k ; J™* fu k nctl0ns of these elem ents are 
the audience when using audio mediatoevokesourrpi educator use care in considering 

been thoroughly exposed to the source that produces the s^ not 

Audio Element: Speech 

teed below 811 '' a " d direCt addreSS ^ ,hree functions of *■= speech element. Their functions will be 


Narrative speech can be used to: 



' tei “r 0UW in K C,UdedireCti0 " S . Project 

presented with text, the text antedofmus,^ b ° e » XT' When na ™ ta " * 

distraction and cause interference in learning the m„re f n S u me ' D,scre P ancies may result in 
misinterpretation of material 8 ma ‘ enal whlch translates to motion or 

Replace text: 

Narration is most useful, as a replacement nf tr»Yt xi/ho™ 

text would reduce the visual impact of the rare N»™« SpaCe ,s limited and the addition of 
Direct viewer's attention: P 8 NfflIatlon Sav “ screen space and visual clutter. 

The image displayed on the screen may need to be the focal nnint m, *• • . 

attenhon to the image being displayed rather than forciL the viewe^SemLT 1 ! ‘° d ' reC ‘ V ‘ e "' er 
image and reading the text explanation. 8 to alternate between viewing an 


Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 

NaiTation and dialogue together can: 

Affeci intensity by setting the pace. Pace effects the intensity of emotion during a presentation 
Examples include: 

Fast moving narration adds to the intensity of time lapsed animation. Slow moving narration 
complements the sober mood of a funeral. 

Fast paced dialogue between two characters can reflect tension, anger, excitement, or nervousness. 
Smooth, even paced dialogue reflects friendliness, relaxation, and confidence. 

Affect the listener s perception through changes in tone quality. 
Examples include: 

• Bright and present nairation is perceived to be closer and more intimate and trustworthy 

• Speech that sounds dull and distant would have the opposite effect. 

Direct Address 

Direct address refers to the character speaking directly to the audience. 

Examples include: 

• Some TV commercials that talk directly to the audience. 

• Speeches 

• Newscasts 

Audio Element: Sound Effects 

Sound effects can function contextually and narratively. 

Contextual Function 

When sound effects have a contextual function the sound effect interprets the visual as it appears. 
Examples include: 

• a dog barking or a dog begging for a treat 

• the roar of a jet or airplane engine in normal flight or taking off, or the sound of a jet having engine 

Narrative Function 

Mien sound effects have a narrative function the sound effect adds more to the image’s apparent 
information. The functions of the narrative format can be broken down even further into those that provide 
descriptive effects and those that serve a commentary function. 

Narrative Function: Descriptive Effect 



Effectivellse of Audio in Multimedia Presentations; 

Sound effects contribute to the subtle aspects of an image. Subtle aspects are those features that are hard to 
define or perce, ve but that contribute greatly to the emotional effect of the image or scene. 

Examples include: 

’ S a p^ticute mo^d ° Cea " SUrf WhiCh ” ay indUde gUllS ’ pe0ple playing ’ and b0at sounds used t0 

• The sound of a violent ocean surf and warning sirens sounding in the background. The mood of this 
example would be quite different than the mood of the first example. 

• Sr a KI C !T °/ a m f tal tria r gle being Struck with a metal be * ter - The audience may hear a clink 
indicating ha the tnang e may be made of inferior materials or they may hear a clear ringing sound 

indicating that the tnang e is made out of quality materials. Perhaps the audience only heirs a thud 
crfwoal or plastic ^ Y ““ * W " S made ° f metal but have **ually been ™de 

• Imagine a picture of a cymbal player crashing a pair of cymbals. If a clear ringing sound is heard the 

rr^hk h n °Tf th if ! S holding the cymbals correctly as they are being played. If a muffled 

crash is heard followed by little nnging the teacher assumes that the player is not holding the 

cymbals correctly and may be placing too much of his/her hands on the cymbals as they are being 

Narrative Function: Commentative Sounds 

Commentatwe sounds also tell more about an image but the information is usually unrelated to the visual 


Imagine a program about air pollution and a scene of city traffic. Treating and blending the car 
we 8 brelthe" SPUtter ^ C ° Ugh ’ comments on the detrimental effects that air pollution has on the air 

Audio Element: Music 

Music is very effective in communicating complicated emotions and moods. Functions of music in 
multtmedm presentahons include establishing locale or time, identifying characters and events, acting as a 

scenes> and setting the mood and pace ° f ~ 



Locale. Music can define a locale with ethnic melodies 

1960’s 1 rte C Romanera h ‘ ime Wi ' h mUSiCa ‘ e ' ementS *"* S “ ggeSt 3 Peri ° d in histor >' Such as the 

Identification: Music can identify characters and events with recurring themes. A short musical 
phrase or spectfic sound effect can be used to signal the appearance of a person, action, or situation 
ihis is sometimes called leitmotiv (German for "leading motive") 

Transitions: Music can be used to connect one idea or scene to another. It can also smoothe the transition to a contrasting 
theme. It prepares the audience by letting them know that something is going to change. 8 

Pace: Music can be used to establish the pace of the presentation. This pace can parallel the visual 
media or provide counterpoint to signify tension or irony. 


Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 


s,? sound - si,ence - * - » 

the use of silence as well as the use of the other audio eleme k * a^ presentaci0ns need to consider 
earlier in this paper, the audio channei U a prcsentati °"- As stated 

interjechon on the visual channel rather than being continuously paral^She Wsul" “““ “ S “ 


Literal Sounds and Non-Literal Sounds 

■«*. «own sounds into two 

Non-literal sounds include background music and other *n S ^ ° ° 6 speech and environmental sounds. 
• All of the sound elements ^ in some 

about how they can be used as you readme definitions below 5 “ 2 ^ ° r non ’ IlteraI wa y- Think 

Literal Sounds 

sound-produci^sot^e.^on^rsatio^^nhe Mu*nd Il f teraI . n ? i eanin S- The y refer the listener to the 
Literal sounds can be source-connected or source-disc™^ t0 P6 ° pIe and automobiI es. 

source when they hear source-connected sounds Thp cn e udience can see the sound-producing 
listener vis/a, izes the ^^t^S"**"'*** S ° U " d " ° ff — "• 

Non-Literal Sounds 

deSS literal meaning. They are 

following sound effects boines hiss^c and u image of the sound-producing source. The 

Romantic music pla^din t^actgToun^l^aio^^Lr “"f f* T* 

non-story space !° "" «— - «„ed S me^thf/occupy 


^^^^oTAei>CTntext within^rp^ent^^n orscene 1 M Ce ^ e *“ be liKral 0r ***** 

the mood of a scene would be considered non literal sound m P , aye f ln the back S round to influence 
orchestra musicians perfonn, wouIdte^TdeSStu^ P ' ^ “ the aU<W watch “ 


Functions of Sound as Used in Radio and Television 

Pr0dUCti ° n iM ° eategories. He 

orientation . These funchons s/ould a,so 

O dde information 



. Elective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentati, 



SMS Jsssss t ^rr : the f r of ***«■ a„d 

Establish Outer Orientation 

,he r e in space ' *■* «, 

produced in a large room sound different than those Drodured atl ° n ’ th< r. spatial environment (sounds 
(sounds of people and objects not seen on-screen?Mo^n 21 small room) and off-screen space 
bacon frying distinguishes the time of day. Situat ofoS^ T f "" aIaim cIock rin ging and 
specific situation. These sounds may be predictive TuS ^ T° th ° Se that des ^be a 

of a person or action (leitmotiv), or they may signify th P • U f ed t0 indicate the recurring appearance 
(non-recurring). y may Slgruf y the coming of an event such as danger 

Establish Inner Orientation 

and structure to the scene. Mood can be sit using mustc ? ^ ^ imernaI COndition ’ and Provide energy 
produced sound. Sounds that indicate an unstabte T °/ non ' musicaI > electronically 

internal condition. Sounds provide or increase the aesthetir * * ° f feelings of a P erS0n establish the 
emotions of the viewers. c ener SY of a scene. This energy affects the 

versus .a, of the visua, source. 

each other. If the sound and visual structure are considered nS i i,™' 8 " *’ 0r hlghly inde pendent of 

tiZ 71 rateS ° f ‘ he vis,lal and aud ‘° structures mvtrl'hlv 5 ' m ° Ve “ ‘ he Same ra,e ' In ineguhr 

time and then move separately. If the visual and andiV, J ^ They may move t0 S ettler for a period of 
provide contrast and interaction amonX ^s \ indepen<fc " Ily of one anoVer they 


Roles of Audio Media in Multimedia Production 

Pr d UCti ° n ' ro ' es “ 

described below. Examples anTprovided" P d Each roIe ig 

Picture defines sound 

a lS ^ image is 50 stron g that the 

sound effects described earlier in this paper. T V£ry SlmiIar t0 ** descriptive function of 




>f 9 


Effective Use of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 

• A raging storm, with crashing waves and bent palms demands a soundtrack that consists of wind 
surf, and rain sound effects. Audio is supportive of the dominant visual, reinforcing the image. 

A quiet beach with small calm waves demands a soundtrack that consists of soft surf sounds and 
sounds of children playing. 

Sound defines picture 

When the sound defines the picture the sound is so distinctive that the listener forms an image of the 
source in his or her mind before the image is displayed. Examples are listed below. Remember to consider 
the background knowledge of your students when you use sound in this manner. 

• Multimedia program on the Brazilian rain forest 

• A still image of the jungle interior is accompanied by the solitary sounds of the environment: 

• Rainfall 

• Bird calls 

• Other animals 

• Lively ethnic music 

• Distinctive Sounds Produced by Objects 

• Sound of chain saws 

• Sound of various types of machinery 

Sound parallels picture 

Sound parallels picture is the most common relationship between audio and visual elements. The audio 

element combines with the visual element to create a mood or deliver information that is more potent than 
either element alone . 

• Example. The sounds of battle with gunshots, cannon, and anguished screams complement the visual 

of a battle scene. The ferocity and destruction of war is conveyed by both media separately but is 
intensified by both elements together. y ’ S 

Sound counterpoints picture 

Sound counterpoints the visual image when both media elements contain unrelated information that creates 
an effect that is not conveyed by either media element alone. Previously Zettl (1999) told us that visual and 
audio elements moving independently of each other provide contrast and interactivity among media types. 

• Example: In a presentation on the civil rights movement, irony is created when a visual montage Of 
segregated public facilities is underscored by a reading of the United States Constitution. 

J Xopl 

Aesthetic Factors of Sound 

There are three basic aesthetic factors of sound use in any scene. They are figure ground, sound 
perspective, and sound continuity. Figure ground is the most important sound in the scene, the sound that 
& ^ m phasized. All other sounds will be in the background. Sound perspective refers to close-up sounds 

Effective JJse of Audio in Multimedia Presentations 



Mac: Recording Audio 

• Simple Sound 

• Sound Edit 

PC: Recording Audio 

• Sound 

• Sound Forge 

Multi-platform: Recording Audio 

• QuickTime 

• Real Audio 

• Narration recorded from within 

Software for Automating Online Multimedia Presentations 

• Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL): 
ht tp:// r/pnh /1999/03/l7/fenrureyindpY hrml 

• RealAudio/Video: h ttpV/www. realm idin mm 

• Top Class: com/ 

The Sync-O-Matic 3000: http.://w a r/ 

J Jopl 

Audio File Types and Platform Compatibility 

• Editing Visual and Audio Media Class (MTSU): 
h ttp://www.mtsi).edu/~itres/itt/Vi s ualAudioHandont/pnoe7 hrmi 

• Duquesne University’s Digital Duke: ha B ,-//the-du ke.d, l n-duke.d U n.edn/norec/T htm 


Company Si8h ‘ S ° Und M ° ti0 "' Applied Media Aesthelics - Sa " Frisco: Wadsworth Publishing 




The 24th national Institute on 

Satellite Outreach Program to Rural K-12 Schools 

Authors: John Sanborn, Stacey Borasky, and Charles Frost 
Social Work Professors 
Social Work Department 
Middle Tennessee State University 







Middle Tennessee State University recently developed a satellite-linked, interactive, distance learning 
system with six rural K-12 schools. Faculty were then invited to make a single presentation over this 
system. The Social Work Department, recognizing both the opportunities and the limitations presented 
by this new system, elected to be one of the presenters. However, instead of simply broadcasting one 
presentation, we proposed that a comprehensive program be developed using the distance learning 
system as one component. The comprehensive program included four broadcasts, contacts by phone and 
in person with key personnel at the schools and with the students, administration of questionnaires with 
the students, and the provision of six videotapes to help prepare the students for the broadcasts. The 
results of this effort are reviewed and evaluated. 



Middle Tennessee State University, with the assistance of a USD A grant, recently developed a 
satellite-linked, interactive, distance learning system with six rural K-12 schools in Middle Tennessee. 
Faculty were then invited to make a single presentation over this system. The Social Work Department, 
recognizing both the opportunities and the limitations presented by this new system, elected to be one of 
the presenters. However, instead of simply broadcasting one presentation, we proposed that a 
comprehensive program be developed using the distance learning system as one component. 

Our outreach effort to these six rural schools was planned to include the following: 

1. A satellite broadcast, on October 29, 1998, to the teachers at the six schools to discuss what their 
student needs were and how we might best meet those needs. 

2. Follow up contacts by phone and in person with key leaders at the six rural schools to refine how 
we might be of assistance. 

3. Provision of six videotapes that we have developed dealing with drugs, alcohol, and violence for 
the schools to be used in the classes prior to our satellite broadcasts with the students. 

4. Administering to the students at each of the schools a questionnaire that would help determine 


1 of 4 


1 1/30/99 4:40 PM 

The 24th national Institute on 

2. Follow up contacts by phone and in person with key leaders at the six rural schools to refine how we 
might be of assistance. 

3. Provision of six videotapes that we have developed dealing with drugs, alcohol, and violence for the 
schools to be used in the classes prior to our satellite broadcasts with the students. 

4. Administering to the students at each of the schools a questionnaire that would help determine their 
problems and needs. 

5. Having our senior social work students, many of whom went to these or similar rural schools, visit 
the six schools and interact with the students in a program designed to help them examine their 

• All of the above leading to three satellite-linked, interactive, television broadcasts to the six schools. 
These were entitled: Anger Management: How to Prevent Violence in Our Schools I, II, & III. 
They were broadcast on three successive Thursday afternoons in February, 1999. 

We have envisioned that this is part of a long range and comprehensive effort to reach out to these six 
schools by the faculty and students of the Social Work Department. The problems we encountered, how we 
were able to overcome some of the problems and not others, and what recommendations we would make to 
anyone attempting a similar outreach to rural schools will be discussed. The results of this first phase of the 
program will be presented. 

J TopI 


This type of distance education, which combines a variety of methods of instruction, including broadcasts, 
need assessment, the distribution of videotapes and meetings between high school and college students at 
several locations, creates wonderful opportunities and presents significant challenges. One of the most 
important things we learned and the key concern that anyone needs to anticipate in this effort is that it will 
take a lot more time and energy to coordinate these types of activities than you can possibly anticipate. 

Even schools that want to participate in such an endeavor will tend to present obstacles to any such effort. 
Schools, for good cause, tend to be very turf protecting systems. Also, schools tend to be fairly rigid 
organizationally. For example, when dealing with six different school systems, we ran into the problem of 
trying to find a time for our broadcasts that would fit all six schools. They were not about to change their 
school hours to accommodate our one-hour time slot. Any one-hour slot inevitably was acceptable to some 
and not other schools. We resolved this by expanding the broadcast to 1.5 hours. The first and last 
half-hour were repeats and the middle half-hour was the same for all schools. Thus, a school could tune in 
at 1:00pm and stop at 2:00pm or they could tune in at 1:30 and stop at 2:30. This worked for everyone, 
however, as you can imagine, it substantially increased the costs, time, and energy for all of us at the 

Also, communication can become very tangled, to say the least. When both organizations, e.g., MTSU and 
the six schools, do not have a full-time person responsible for ensuring that information flows correctly, 
then Murphy's Law takes effect — if something can go wrong, it will go wrong! We made it clear that we 
were going to have three student broadcasts that built on one another. However, the schools changed 
student groups on us in mid-stream and the type of student being served changed from ones that needed 
educational information to those that needed treatment and were inappropriate for participation in a 
broadcast situation. Although you cannot avoid these types of complications, you do need to anticipate 
them and be ready to adjust your effort accordingly. 

A brief but very scary moment occurred in one broadcast where students at one school, that was watching 
the performance of students at another school, made disparaging remarks about the other students. We 


The 24th n&tional Institute on . ^ .. 

: ’ nttpV/www. 

imagined the future news headline: "MTSU Professors Start Violent School Wars." Fortunately, the 
offended students handled it very maturely and the broadcast continued without complications. Student 
participation at both college and high school levels was very positive. Our MTSU students found the visits 
they made to the high schools to be very educational as they learned how to work effectively with both 
students and the school environment. However, that does not mean that this was problem free Some 
schools and teachers welcomed our MTSU students into their high schools with open arms while others 
made them feel as though they were unwelcome intruders. Therefore, it is important that the college 

student be both prepared for this type of mixed reaction beforehand and have a time to talk about it 

At the time of this writing, we have completed one group meeting between MTSU and high school 
students and we are preparing for the other visits. The first meeting went very well and proved to be an 
important component of this distance learning project. This took place in a regularly scheduled high school 
class, which was visited by, approximately twenty-five of our social work majors and two project faculty. 
One of us was responsible for videotaping the process; the other facilitated it. The group meeting started 
with an icebreaker activity involving group cooperation and intergroup competition. This led to a 
discussion, initiated by the college students, of social activities among adolescents. The resulting 
interaction between high school and MTSU students and the ability of the high school students to share 
their perspectives with the group were impressive. Both student groups reported that they benefited from 
the process. The high school students learned something about recreational activities from each other and 
from the college students. Our social work majors learned a good deal about group processes. Additionally, 
the videotape of this meeting was invaluable in the preparation of materials for the first February 
broadcast. Edited segments were used to illustrate the value of group discussion in a process of identifying 
and understanding different perspectives. This material also provided examples of constructive uses of 
leisure time by adolescents. In our broadcasts, we made a concerted effort to get students involved. We 
attempted this in a variety of ways. First, since we videotaped the students during our visits, they knew that 
they would be seeing themselves on television during the broadcast— their "15 minutes" of fame, so to 
speak. At the start of the broadcast we also tried to get them enthused by having them not just "sign-in" but 
do so vigorously contesting with one another. At each of the remote sites we had one or more of our 
MTSU students sitting in to encourage participation. We let students know that they could participate by 
asking questions and being on-camera or by simply passing a note to our student who would present their 
question. At our first broadcast we did a role-play with our MTSU students and as this seemed to work 
quite well, we arranged for the students at the remote sites, with the assistance of our MTSU students, to 
do their own role-plays on-camera. All of this helped to create a learning environment that was 
participatory and engaging for the high school students and, in general, they reported back, on confidential 
evaluation forms processed by the satellite program manager, that they thoroughly enjoyed the program. 
However, this was not always the case. During one broadcast, in an attempt to get the students more 
involved, we role-played with them via satellite. What occurred is that one of us angrily attacked one of the 
students, noting both before and after the attack, that it was just a role-play, that we were not really angry 
with anyone. However, the anger was so vivid that it erased all of the other parts of the message and the 
students became offended. Fortunately, our student at the remote site was able to effectively handle this 
problem. And, eventually, the students were able to see that when a person expresses anger, we often get so 
fixated on the emotions that are aroused that we fail to understand what is really going on. 

Another concern that had to be repeatedly dealt with was confidentiality. We told the students that they 
should not share personal information about themselves over television, that they should talk about what 
"others" are doing. However, this was not always followed and should be repeated at the start of every 
broadcast. Also, each school that participated needed to deal with confidentiality issues as well. 

At our third student broadcast we changed the format. We told the students at each of the schools to spend 
O 1 s minutes discussing among themselves what problems they wanted answers to and we had one of our 



The 24th national Institute on ^proceed99/sanbom.htm 

college students at each of the sites to facilitate this brief discussion. At the end of the discussion the 
schools called in their concerns and we improvised role-plays to deal with each concern. 

Assuming that this is a new endeavor on your part as it was for us, you should be alerted to the fact that 
technology can be challenging and sometimes less than reliable. We needed to have practice sessions to 
team both how to utilize the technology as well as how to best develop and present maSal over Z 

‘ fy ° u a „ sk remote s ;‘ es 10 <*«* in with you and then wait for them to do so, you 
have a lot of dead time that undermines what you are attempting to achieve. Therefore, it is important that 
you keep presenting material while waiting for them to check-in. Also, you need to be prepared for the 

teQ ‘ ,T re r entin§ material Wh£n 311 0f a sudden a P icture of a " infant with undistended 
s appeare on the monitor. A glitch of some technical type occurred and someone else's nursing 

course started to get transmitted instead of our program. As this was a new system and we were among the 

needs to h^nl h pr ,° blems W3S extremeI y hi § h - However, that potential is ever present and 

to be planned. How do you plan for the unplanned? You first try to think of all the things that can go 

wrong and have a response for them. For example, what if the remote site fails to receive the transmission? 

(You then send them a taped copy, an explanation, and an apology.) 

LT b ?u time , bef ° re startin § 7 our broadcasts, it would be a very good use of your time to tape a 
show Without the audience, pretending that they are out there listening, and then viewing the tape. You will 
most likely learn a great deal by so doing. For example, you may find that what you are doing arid saying is 

smns ai f d 1Sn C T unng ,. the atte " tl0n ° f y0ur audience - This is especially likely given the short attention 8 
spans of most video audiences. Or, you may discover that the technical crew is not varying the shots of you 

or not providing enough close-up shots so that you need to provide more instructions to them as to what 

you would hke them to do. If you can't do this ahead of time, then after each broadcast you should review 
what you did by viewing a tape of the broadcast. 

The content of the program was designed to be experiential and spontaneous. This is one of the strengths of 
this type of programming. However, it also is a challenge, as you have to be prepared to fill the time 
effectively. You may need to have taped material or other backup plans ready should the need arise. 

Next year we are planning on repeating our effort at satellite broadcasts to these six rural schools. 
However we feel we will be better prepared and view our first effort as a successful learning experience 
^ f 0 plan °" * gmficantly changing our plan. Next year we are going to visit each of the participating 
schools in the fall semester and at that time videotape their role playing of critical issues they wish the 
program to address. We will then use their role-plays, along with videotaped role-plays performed by our 
college students, as an essential part of the satellite broadcasts. We will show the role-plays and comment 
upon them and respond to comments coming in from the six remote sites. To encourage participation by 
the students in the role-plays, we are going to create a contest; one with prizes for all participants so that it 
isawin-wincontest. Since one of our concerns this inaugural year was parent involvement and permission 
for their children s participation, we are also going to make sure that parents are more aware of what we 
are attempting to do to avoid any complications. Although we did not have any problems from parents we 
were at times concerned that they might be upset by some of the programming^ want m reXut to 
them to minimize any potential misunderstandings. 

J To p l 


The results were, in general, very positive. The feedback from the schools that fully participated was 
uniformly excellent. However, not all schools elected to participate. The reluctance of the non-participants 
J'as primarily due to time; they just didn't feel that they could "intrude" upon their schedules to P 



The 24th national Institute on 

accommodate this comprehensive effort on our part. As this effort is on-going as we plan on future visits 
and future broadcasts, we hope to utilize the positive feedback from the more participatory schools to "sell" 
our program to the other schools. Although the effort takes substantial dme and energy on our part we 

came away with an appreciation on how important it is to reach out to our schools and a conviction that the 
investment was well worthwhile. 


Authors: John Sanborn, Stacey Borasky, and Charles Frost 

Social Work Professors 

Social Work Department 

Middle Tennessee State University 

P.O. Box 139 

Murfreesboro, TN 37132 





Web Site Enhancement of 
Traditional Classroom Pedagogy 

Timothy W. Hiles, Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of Art History 
Department of Art 
University of Tennessee 

Abstract , 

Digital Technology in the Art History Classroom 

The Art History Web Site 

Creating the Site 


Student Feedback 




How does one make use of the remarkable technological opportunities available and yet maintain those 
cherished traditional values inherent in the classroom setting? An intriguing solution has been to make 
an Art History web site available to students that prepares them for active participation in the classroom. 
Moving beyond a passive presentation of information, the site contains interactive reading assignments, 
images previously shown only in the classroom, and various study aids. Students played an integral role 
in the creation of the site, ensuring its practicality. 


Digital Technology in the Art History Classroom 

Digital technology to enhance art history courses has always held intriguing possibilities. As one might 
expect, art historians rely, perhaps more than any other discipline, on visual aids. Accepted practice has 
been to dim the lights at the start of class and show slides of works of art throughout the lecture. 
Although this has been proven as a highly effective method of presenting the material, particularly when 
comparing and contrasting works is desired, it should come as no surprise that an investigation of digital 
imagery has become a primary concern among slide librarians and art historians. Despite the obvious 
advantages of minimal storage space and easy retrieval, however, projection of digital imagery does not 
compare favorably to slide projection. Slides are more luminous, contain more detail, and the pixelation 
of digital imagery is distracting. Because of the poor quality of projected digital images, we have 
generally shied away from classroom use of this new technology. Yet, increasingly, there are programs 
available that are so helpful in other areas, despite the poor visual quality, that they warrant use. For 
example, the Vatican has produced a program that enables one to travel through the rooms of the Papal 
Palace.Hi For the first time, students in Knoxville, Tennessee can stand in the virtual room of the Stanza 
della Segnatura, turn around, and view the frescoes on four walls. They can also walk through the door 
into the adjoining room and see those frescoes on the walls and ceiling. As you can see, however, there 
are some difficulties with this program. The menu is quite distracting and the resolution is poor, making 
moving through the rooms rather mechanical and jerky. Nevertheless, with this type of program students 
can experience a truer sense of Renaissance frescoes and their placement in the rooms. It is not hard to 
imagine future programs that will take us on a tour through the flowing rooms of a Frank Lloyd Wright 


1 1/30/99 4:40 PM^proceed99/hiIes.htm 

and view the frescoes on four walls. They can also walk through the door into the adjoining room and see 
those frescoes on the walls and ceiling. As you can see, however, there are some difficulties with this 
program. The menu is quite distracting and the resolution is poor, making moving through the rooms rather 
mechanical and jerky. Nevertheless, with this type of program students can experience a truer sense of 
Renaissance frescoes and their placement in the rooms. It is not hard to imagine future programs that will 
take us on a tour through the flowing rooms of a Frank Lloyd Wright house or the soaring cathedrals in 
Europe. At the moment, however, the emerging technology has only slightly improved the plight of an art 
historian showing reproductions of art work. 


The Art History Web Site 

For this reason, we decided that perhaps the best use of current technology would take place outside of the 
classroom, so a student could prepare for, and review, material presented in the lecture. Although art 
historians show many images in the classroom setting (often times thirty or more slides each class), 
students have little opportunity to see them beyond their presentation in the lecture. Placing slides on a 
light table for students to view is impractical for forty students taking any one art history class. The images 
are, of course, too small for several students to view at one time; and projecting single images does not 
accommodate those who need to look at different slides. As a result, students have generally been held 
accountable only for those limited works of art that are accessible to them through a reproduction in their 

We have resolved this problem in our History of Photography class by placing all the images shown in 
class on a web site.^I Students need only click on the gallery and find a menu that contains the many 
artists discussed in class. Each artist has a list of images under his or her name. With a click of the mouse, 
the photograph can be brought up to a full screen complete with title and date. Should they need to review 
a comparison that was made in class, they can bring a split screen up so that two images can be accessed 
side by side. 

Throughout the semester, reading assignments have traditionally been distributed with the intention that 
they will be discussed in the following class. Placing those articles online has allowed us to contribute to 
the depth of understanding expected of the student. The articles are often written by photographers whose 
work can be accessed by clicking on their name, bringing you again to the gallery containing their work. 
Specific images can be accessed throughout the article whenever they are mentioned, as can definitions for 
the technical terms. At the end of each article are questions to help the student prepare for discussion in 
class. These questions are broad in nature and allow students to interpret what they have read. The site also 
contains a syllabus, reading list, and definition of terms. 


Creating the Site 

The construction of the site presented us with many challenges. I had never created a web site, or even 
visited them very often, and my knowledge of the process, and the obstacles, was quite archaic. In fact, 
most of my students had a better understanding of the web than I did and so I was led to them in my quest 
O" r rudimentary knowledge. I quickly became aware that their insight would be essential to the success of 



the site. Under the guidance of our Visual Resources Specialist, Sandra Walker, I entrusted the design of 
the site to the very student body that would use it. ° 

At the University of Tennessee we have a unique situation where our Graphic Design students undertake 
professional assignments. The Art Department Design Center was developed to give students supervised 
professional experience in design. Projects are presented to the class from the business community or from 
within the university. The Design Center operates like a design firm. Although there is no charge for the 
final product, students are requested to behave in a professional manner when associating with their 
clients. I presented my project to the Design Center with the hope that these students, several of whom had 
Luiii.ii my idaSd, would develop a user-fnendly site that was also helpful. The response was quite positive 
and so I went about writing up a proposal that included the essential ideas I wanted to incorporate into the 
site. Primary among these ideas was that the site make available for review all the images shown in class. 
Initially, we considered posting the images week by week according to what had been presented in lectures. 
After much discussion, however, we rejected this idea primarily because some members of the Design 
Center committee suggested that this might discourage students from coming to class. In an admirably 
frank way, they admitted that if they knew the images were available in a weekly package they would be 
more likely to miss class, use someone else's notes, and try to match them to the images. Of course, this 
can also be accomplished in the present gallery system; however, ease of accessibility, they felt, would 
become an incentive to stay away from class. 

Another obstacle that presented itself to us was that of labor. This became an especially acute problem 

when we realized that it took approximately ten minutes to scan and adjust images for the site.^ The 
time-consuming process of scanning over five hundred slides seemed prohibitive and likely to postpone the 
project until such time was available. Once again, however, we turned to the student body for a solution. 
Many students had expressed interest in working on the project because of the practical web experience 
involved. The more complex work with HTML coding and links was undertaken by two Library Science 
practicum students who had expressed a keen interest in distance learning. These students created much of 
the layout for the pages as well as many of the links between pages. Each article was typed into the system 
because we had not had much success with scanning the articles and then creating links to the images. Our 
knowledge of HTML coding was limited so we used the extremely informative site at Case Western 
Reserve University that explains, in layman's terms, how to utilize the coding.^ 

The cost of this venture was also a challenge for us. Our department, like most Art Departments, did not 
have ample funding for technological innovation. Regardless, we were able to create a remarkable site with 
limited resources. We used our Zenith PC (purchased by the department a few years ago to service all five 

art historian's needs!) with Windows95 and Netscape 2.01.^ The graphics were created with Adobe and 
WordPerfect software.^ Images were scanned with a Polaroid Slide Scanner and stored on an external Zip 
disk.^I The site was then loaded onto the university UNIX mainframe, on personal space provided to 
professors for their own web site, for use by those students in the class. ^ 



Perhaps the most complex issue we struggled with was copyright. The legality of reproducing images and 
articles on the web for educational purposes is, at the moment, unresolved. For years, professors have 
made copies of articles and shown slides in a classroom under the assumption that, in a nonprofit 
lucational setting, these practices fell under the "fair use" clause of the Copyright Act of 1976. This'itconf/proceed99/hiIes.htra 

clause, however, was meant primarily for textual works and has little applicability to visual materials or to 
digital reproduction of those materials. The ongoing debate may come to a satisfactory conclusion soon as 
the Library of Congress concludes a six month study that was mandated by Congress through Section 403 
of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act enacted October 28, 1998. The Library of Congress's 
recommendations, which may include legislative changes, will be submitted to Congress no later than 
April 28, 1999. r 

As a part of this study, on Tuesday, January 26th, Virginia M.G. Hall, Senior Information Technology 
Specialist for the Humanities at Johns Hopkins University and co-chair of the Visual Resources 
Association Intellectual Property Rights Committee testified at the Library of Congress hearings as to the 
insufficiency of the Copyright Act of 1976 in covering transmission of digital images. As she explained: at 
that time "distance education was defined according to the technology of the time: primarily closed circuit 
television broadcasts to overflow classrooms, with the requirement that such teaching technologies be 

face-to-face or synchronous."^ Accessibility to a web site would seem to conflict with that definition. 
New fair use guidelines should apply, she concluded, to new digital practices: 

"In real-life digital practice, distance education is a term used broadly to include a range of instructional 
concepts from courses taught completely on-line, with little or no true face-to-face contact, to selected 
enhancement materials placed on a web site by a professor for students to view. Generally speaking, the 
term distance education as applied to digital media should cover any course related material that is 
intended to be accessed via computer. 

Ms. Hall also brought to light an important aspect of the art historian's classroom that for years has 
pertained to slide libraries. Namely, that the works of art we show in class are often of an esoteric nature, 
little-known images which "typically have inconsequential commercial value and even less general market 

interest and are therefore unlikely to be targeted for licensed distribution."^ She concluded that fair use 
should not be restricted in any way for digital media. She did concede, however, that availability may be 
limited to students registered at the institution and enrolled in the course; and that it is fair to require some 

measure of security such as a PIN or password to course materials protected by copyright.^^ We 
recognize the importance of complying with the spirit of the Copyright Act and have incorporated a 
password system onto our site. This was a relatively easy adjustment and, in fact, the software, called 

Codelink, was shareware available from Silk Webware.^ Because we wanted to keep our attractive 
graphics and make the first page accessible, without a password, to all students who would like to preview 
the syllabus and use the links to the Art Department, the images on the first page were either taken by our 
Professors of Photography or are part of my own collection and thus copyright is not an issue. 

Ms. Hall's effect on final legislation is yet to be determined; however, most academics would applaud her 
clarification of the fair use issue and agree with her summation in which she quotes the Copyright Office's 
General Guide to the Copyright Act of 1976: 

". . . the primary purpose of copyright legislation is to foster creation and dissemination of intellectual 
works for the public welfare. . . ."GAl 



The College Art Association has also filed comments with the Copyright Office. They have systematically 
taken issue with some points of the 1976 Copyright Act. A crucial point for them is one that Ms. Hall had 
also addressed: the fair use provision that considers "the amount and substantiality of the portion of a work 

used in considering whether the use is fair."^^ 

Although this seems appropriate for literary works, it does not make sense when considering the study of 
the visual arts. The art historian must have access to the entire work of art. All of us would agree that 
showing only a portion of Michelangelo's David or Titian's Venus ofUrbino would not be very helpful. As 
mentioned earlier, professors have been using slides for many years in the classroom. Digital images are 
simply what the most recent technology has to offer and should be treated in the same manner as other fair 
use material. Professors must be free to propagate knowledge using the best technology available to them 
and non-profit educational institutions must be secure in their belief that they will not be sued if they 
pursue the goals of their charter using the newest technology. 

Indeed, the copyright issue has already curtailed the progress of education. The College Art Association 
has explained that institutions everywhere have "fundamentally limited the quality and breadth of academic 
programs for fear of lawsuits and, in some cases, have been prevented from embarking on digital 


It should be stressed, once again, that commercial vendors are not a viable option because of the esoteric 
nature and breadth of material that a professor might use in the classroom. Much of the material is simply 
not available, and undoubtedly will never be available because of its unprofitable use. Should an institution 
limit its curriculum according to the few options available in the commercial market place? 

The conclusion of the College Art Association is, I believe, one that should guide the ongoing discussion 
as to how to resolve the copyright issue: 

"that the traditional classroom and the traditional relationship the student has with the learning process 
should serve as the paradigm for the exploitation of new educational media and processes. 


Student Feedback 

Student feedback has been very positive and my initial misgivings about use of the site were allayed almost 
immediately. To ease the transition into text and image online, I made available paper copies of the first 
assigned article, suggesting that those who were hesitant to use the site could still read the material on a 
hard copy. Only one student obtained the paper copy, and it was unnecessary to provide them again. 

Shortly after the midterm, we polled the class to determine their use of the web site. The approximate 
percentages of that poll are as follows: 

Frequency of use 


1) 100% of those polled had used the site for study and review 

2) 60% had used the site once a week 

3) 10% had used it several times a week 

4) 10% had used it before every class to prepare for class 

5) 20% used it less than once a week 

Accessing the site 

1) 30% accessed the site at computers at the main university library 

2) 40.5% accessed it from a computer lab on campus 

3) 40.5% through a modem connection from a home computer or dorm room. 

General response 

1) 100% of those who responded felt that the web site helped them study for the class 

2) 83% stated that they would be more likely to select a course that included similar web sites for study and 

The project was a success for all concerned. Student response was extremely favorable and we were 
encouraged to continue to put our art history courses online. This initial site was time-consuming and labor 
intensive with much trial and error. (In fact, our Visual Resources Specialist is hoping I wait until she 
retires before I pursue another course!) Everyone involved agrees, however, of the merit of the venture, and 
result, and would like to see all of our art history courses online. Cost is no longer a prominent factor, now 
that the software has been purchased, and consists mostly of labor and storage disks. The learning 
experience of creating the site was invaluable. The student who created most of the graphics is now 
gainfully employed in an organization that designs web sites, and one of our practicum students is now 
working at the Metropolitan Museum of Art helping to digitize their images. We seem to have stumbled 
across, for this brief shining moment, a win-win situation. 

C CQ P.1 


1. Raphael: An Artist for the Vatican. Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1997. System requirements 
include: MS DOS operating system version of Windows 3.1, 3.11, or 95; a multimedia PC or compatible 
with a 486 DX 66 MHZ processor or higher (Pentium recommended); 8 MB of RAM (16 MB of RAM 
recommended) 4 MB of available hard disk space; SVGA monitor (640x480, 32,000 colors or higher); 
^ouble speed CD-ROM drive minimum (300 Kb/sec); windows compatible sound card; 



speakers/headphones; mouse. 

2. http://web . ~twh/photo .htm 

3. Software provided with the Polaroid Sprintscan 35 LE previewed each slide to be scanned and then 
scanned the image. We chose to scan at 72 dpi. The scanned images were saved as JPEG files and then 
opened in Adobe Photoshop. For the black and white images, the color information was removed to make 
the file smaller and the "auto function" was used to sharpen the image. Color photos were more time 
consuming because of the color shifts that often occurred. In one instance, for example, a sepia toned 
image took one half hour to complete. The final image was saved as a JPEG file. Then the file was copied 
to the university web server site from a Zip disk using file transfer protocol (FTP). 

4. Case Western Reserve University <> 

5. We used the Zenith, Z Station, multi-media PC (pentium) with a minimum of 32 MB of RAM. 
Windows95 was used in conjunction with Netscape 2.01 (although we found that Netscape 4.0 is more 
flexible and offers more features). 

6. Adobe Photoshop was used to manipulate the images, and WordPerfect 5.2 was used for the text. 

7. The Polaroid Sprintscan 35 LE was used because it was compatible with the plastic mounted slides of 
our slide library. Other scanners we considered have difficulty with slides that are not paper mounted and 
also do not open up if a slide becomes jammed. 

8. The university campus is wired with the fiber optics ethemet cable system. It was possible to work on 
the site from my phone modem at home; however, the process was much slower. 

9. The text of this testimony was e-mailed to members of the Visual Resources Association, of which our 
Visual Resources Specialist is a member. Testimony of the hearings are available at 
< ■">. 

10. Ibid. 

11. Ibid. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Codelink from Silk Webware is Java Shareware. The file size is 61. IK and it is available in version 4.1 

<, 332, 0-48824-s, 1000. html?st.dl. redir.txt. tdtl> 

14. Hall, op cit. 

15. Comments of the College Art Association were submitted to the Library of Congress, Copyright Office 
by Robert A. Baron, Kathleen R. Cohen, and Jeffrey P. Cunard. The text of these comments is available at 
< .">. The College Art Association is located at 
275 Seventh Avenue, New York, New York 10001. 

16. Ibid, p. 4. 


17. Ibid, p. 9. 


Timothy W. Hiles, Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of Art History 
Department of Art 
University of Tennessee 
1715 Volunteer Blvd. 

Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2410 



What.H^pper),s After the Online Course Ends? 

What happens after the online course ends? 

Online student performance in subsequent campus-based courses 

Paula Szulc Dominguez, Ed.D. 

Dennis R. Ridley, Ph.D. 
Christopher Newport University 


Developing the Research Question 

Methods and Findings 





Christopher Newport University (CNU) has offered its students online courses since the early 1990s. 

The online courses originated through the efforts of a single faculty member from one department who 
used a bulletin board to support class discussions and assignments. Over the course of 18 months, 
faculty members in other departments became attracted to the idea of teaching online and began offering 
additional courses. In 1994, a cadre of online faculty members lobbied for and received funding from the 
Virginia General Assembly to support a two-year pilot online program at the university. 

To meet legislative funding requirements, CNU was required to provide evidence that the students 
participating in online courses demonstrated learning outcomes equivalent to student learning that 
occurred in traditional, campus-based courses. During the two-year pilot stage, CNU collected a variety 
of qualitative and quantitative data to assess student learning outcomes. In 1996, CNU submitted a final 
report to the General Assembly stating that, indeed, online students performed at least as well as students 
in traditional courses, and that online instructors considered their courses to be at least as intellectually 
rigorous as campus-based counterparts. 

With the educational quality of its online courses documented, CNU began operating CNU Online, a 
program independent of any particular departmental sponsorship, in 1996. Since 1996, CNU Online has 
witnessed an increase each semester in the number of online enrollments and in the number of online 
courses offered. At the time this paper was written— in the midst of the Spring 1999 semester— CNU 
Online included 1063 enrollments in 52 courses. CNU Online also offers two complete degree programs, 
a bachelor of science degree in Government and Public Administration, and a bachelor of arts degree in 
Philosophy and Religious Studies. 


Developing the research question 

Establishing that online education is as educationally sound as traditional courses is an important and 
requisite step to creating a distance education program. But as a distance education program evolves and 
as each semester brings a new wave of data into an institution, the kind of questions a university can 
pose also changes. At CNU, we have noticed that many of our online students alternate between online 
and traditional courses. That is, there is no distinct "online student" group at CNU. Instead, the great 
majority of CNU's online students (88%) live within commuting distance to campus and combine online 



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WhaLlisppen^ After the Online Course Ends? 

and traditional courses during their college careers. Many of our online courses are 100- and 200-level 
courses that act as prerequisites for more advanced study. Although some advanced courses are available 
online, many are only offered in traditional instructional settings. Therefore, CNU houses a body of 
students for whom the prerequisite course was taken online while the advanced course was taken on 
campus. This situation allowed CNU to consider how well our online students perform in traditional 
courses that build on information encountered in the online course. We wondered if online students 
would be at a disadvantage in traditional courses, compared with classmates who had taken the 
prerequisite through traditional means (for our purposes "traditional" forms of prerequisites included 
CNU on-campus courses, courses transferred in from another college or a community college, or credit 
given for performance on an examination). Our concern was that if the online students did not perform at 
least as well as classmates who had taken traditional versions of the prerequisites, then two potentially 
serious scenarios might exist. First, it might be that the online courses were not conveying the 
information necessary for preparation for more advanced study, which could be remedied fairly easily by 
changes in the course content. Alternatively, it might be that online students might be at a disadvantage 
because of the format of the course itself. That is, perhaps the content of an online course does not have 
"staying power" with students, and students are therefore not able to call upon this knowledge in 
subsequent academic settings. This alternative would not bode well for the expansion of distance 
education at CNU and, perhaps, elsewhere. If, however, online students did as well as their classmates 
from traditional prerequisites, then the online program as a whole could rest assured that online students 
were being prepared for advanced academic study. To shed light on this issue, we focused our attention 
on the relationship between student performance in prerequisite courses (online versus traditional) and 
advanced courses (traditional) at CNU, and relied on methods employed in previous studies of college 
transfer (e.g., Quanty et al., 1998). 


Methods and findings 

A single question guided our study: Do online courses prepare students for advanced study at least as 
well as traditionally accepted forms of prerequisites? We began by reviewing the enrollment records 
from six departments at CNU that offer a majority of the lower level online courses. We examined a 
total of nine courses offered between one and four times each, between the Fall 1994 and Spring 1998 
semesters. We traced all the online students' course of study after their participation in the lower level 
online course to see whether they went on to enroll in a traditional advanced course. Using this 
approach, we located a total of 44 enrollments for whom the online course acted as a prerequisite for a 
traditionally offered advanced course. 

To determine whether the online courses had prepared these students as well as the traditional 
prerequisite courses, we compared their final grades with the grades of their classmates in the advanced 
course (Table 1). We operationalized student success as achieving a grade of a C or higher, and 
compared the proportion of students who had received a C or higher through traditional and online 
prerequisites. Using Fisher's Exact Test of significance, we found that there was no statistically 
significant difference in the students' final grades (p = .19). Based on this finding, we concluded that the 
online courses we examined prepared students for advanced study at least as well as the traditionally 
accepted forms of prerequisites at CNU. 


Table 1 : Final grades of students in advanced courses who took the prerequisite either through 

traditional or online means. 


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What'^ffeppeiK After the Online Course Ends? 

Advanced course grades 




% passing 






' 40 




When it comes to assessment, evaluation, and research, distance education programs typically focus on 
student performance in the here-and-now of the distance education setting for a particular semester. 
Investigators seldom consider how well distance education students perform on tests, exams, and 
assignments that build on the knowledge the students gleaned through their non-traditional study. An 
initial examination of the data collected at Christopher Newport University indicates that online students 
take with them the information they obtained in their online study, and successfully apply it to 
subsequent advanced courses to the same extent as students in traditional settings. Although our data are 
few at this point— despite the hundreds of online enrollments CNU has hosted since the early 1990s, we 
were only able to locate 44 cases that fell within the parameters defined by our research question— we are 
optimistic that future research will continue to support the academic quality of our online courses. It is 
our hope that if other institutions employ a similar strategy as they consider student performance, a more 
elaborate dialogue on distance education can proceed. 



1. Quanty, M.B., Dixon, R.W., & Ridley, D. (1998). Community college strategies: A new paradigm for 
evaluating transfer success. Assessment update, vol. 10, no. 2, March/ April. 


Paula Szulc Dominguez, Ed.D. 

Dennis R. Ridley, Ph.D. 

Christopher Newport University 
1 University Place 
Newport News, VA 23606 



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Establishing a Faculty Technology Center 

Establishing a Faculty Technology Center 

Dr. Roger Von Holzen 

Director— Center for Information Technology in Education 
Northwest Missouri State University 
Maryville, MO 

In the spring of 1998, Northwest Missouri State University established its Center for Information 
Technology in Education (CITE). The focus of this presentation will be on the process involved in 
staffing the. center, determining hardware and software needs, budgetary considerations, and other issues 
. a college or university interested in establishing such a center may encounter. Key considerations related 
to faculty and administration relations, training, and the production of technology-based learning 
materials will also be discussed. 

Establishing a Faculty Technology Center 

Over the past two years, a growing panic seems to have set in among educational leaders at the college 
and university level. Most of these leaders feel that their schools must embark as rapidly as possible into 
the new frontier of high tech, web-related course delivery. The underlying basis for this panic is the fear 
of losing on the field of competition for needed student enrollment figures. Unfortunately, soon after 
charging into this new arena, many of the schools find that they lack the necessary infrastructure to 
support the endeavor, particularly in the area of faculty support. 

Starting in 1 987, Northwest Missouri State University began building ten years of extensive experience 
with its campus-wide VAX computer system, which it called the Electronic Campus. The Electronic 
Campus included terminals in every dormitory room and faculty office. Based on the knowledge it had 
accumulated, Northwest proposed in 1996 that the university be designated as Missouri's center for the 
testing and development of personal computer applications for the enhancement of learning. As part of 
this Mission Enhancement plan to the state, Northwest indicated that a Center for Information 
Technology in Education (CITE) would need to be established. The center would be used to provide the 
necessary faculty support infrastructure to achieve the above stated goal and to increase Northwest’s 
engagement and leadership in the application of information technology to learning. In the spring of 
1 997, Northwest's Mission Enhancement proposal was accepted by the state legislature and funded to 
the tune of $800,000. 

While awaiting the selection of the first CITE director in 1997, 22 faculty members participated in a 
series of summer course modularization projects under the auspices of the academic provost. The 
purpose of these projects was to incorporate information technology into existing courses in such a 
manner as to enable the course materials to be available to learners in modularized units that better 
serviced their educational needs. As a director was finally appointed late in the spring of 1998, a second 
group of faculty was provided summer stipends (at a cost of about $90,000) to again develop 
modularized, technology-based course materials. 

As described in its Mission Enhancement proposal, a major goal of CITE was to facilitate and enhance 
the educational opportunities of students at Northwest by identifying and testing computer-based 
learning packages already available on the market and to develop new ones where there were important 
gaps. These packages were to be made available to both Northwest's own students and to learners 
enrolled in programs in other Missouri institutions. But a more immediate aim soon captured the 
exclusive focus of CITE. 

Growing out of a series of discussions between Northwest president Dean Hubbard and Colorado 
Electronic Community College's president Mary Beth Sussman, an articulation agreement was signed in 



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Establishing a Faculty Technology Center /V onHolzen 1 .htm 

the summer of 1998. Based on the associate degree in business provided entirely online by the Colorado 
consortium, it was agreed that Northwest would begin the process of providing all of the necessary 
courses online that would enable students with the Colorado associate degree to complete a bachelor's 
degree in business management. Thus, in the summer and fall of 1998, the focus of CITE had to be 
realigned toward assisting Northwest faculty in developing content-specific learning materials for 
distribution through web-based courses. 

All of this was taking place while the new director was settling in. Besides working with the faculty as 
stated above, the director and the temporary assistant director (a faculty member on halftime release) had 
to hire the staff (curriculum design specialist, computer specialist, and secretary), physically establish 
the center in office space provided by the university library, and purchase needed hardware and 
software. The purchases quickly surpassed the $60,000 mark. The items bought were based on hardware 
and software platforms that were widely used on campus: PC computers, Office 97 and Toolbook II 
Assistant and Instructor for the development of online course materials. 

One of the first things the new faculty technology center had to do was to designate, after extensive 
faculty and staff input, the major software packages the center would support both through purchases 
and technical and training assistance. It was quickly found by the CITE staff that it would not be 
financially feasible for the center to support the wide array of idiosyncratic software desires of the 
campus faculty. This policy is especially important in the area of course development software, where an 
extensive knowledge about a particular software package on the part of the staff is necessary in order to 
fully utilize its properties. 

As part of its Mission Enhancement money, CITE provides each Northwest faculty member with a 
notebook computer on a two to three year rotation cycle, at a cost of approximately $250,000 per year. 
The notebooks are distributed based on faculty needs and administrative targeting of academic areas that 
require technological enhancement. 

But beyond the expense associated with the notebook computers, the CITE office soon learned that a 
policy had to be established as to the depth and breath of financial support it would provide to faculty for 
the purchase of computer-related hardware, such as digital cameras and CD-ROM burners. The policy, 
as currently implemented, calls for the center to make a reasonable effort to provide the hardware 
requested by faculty on a short-term loan basis, with "ownership" of the hardware to remain with CITE. 
This policy helps to minimize the needless duplication of seldom-used hardware and to maximize the 
array of hardware available for the faculty to use. 

As CITE was getting settled into place and the necessary policies codified, it rapidly became apparent 
that the center did not have the level of staffing that was necessary to properly assist faculty in 
transforming course materials to completely web-based online courses. Using some of the funds 
available within the budget to support faculty stipends, the center decided that the hiring of student help 
to assist the individual faculty members would be the most economical approach to the problem. Funds 
were thereby transferred to the participating faculty members' department budgets to pay for the student 
help, thus minimizing student-related paperwork for the CITE office. Student assistance was also 
provided through the departments by means of student internships and independent study projects. 

During the fall of 1998, while waiting for final negotiations to take place between Northwest and Real 
Education (which is to provide the course management software and related hardware and technical 
resources for the online business courses), CITE undertook the selection of Web Course in a Box as its 
local online courses management software. The reason this package was selected was due to its minimal 
learning curve and the fact that version 2.02 was free. It was through this software that four online 
courses were hosted for the spring, 1999 semester: Introduction to Business Finance, Introduction to 
Philosophy, Enjoyment of Music, and Peoples and Cultures (a cultural geography course). To provide a 
stronger, more comprehensive, online testing and student tracking system, it was later decided to switch 
the local course management software to Courselnfo by Blackboard, Inc. for the summer, 1999 online 
courses. While this may seem a duplication of course management software packages (Real Education 
vs. Courselnfo), it was decided that an inexpensive means had to be provided to faculty for them to 
disseminate some online course materials to their students without incurring the high fees associated 


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Establishing a Faculty Technology Center 

http://www.mtsu. edu/~itconf/proceed99/V onHolzenl .htm 

with the provision of such materials through the auspices of Real Education. 

To aid in establishing strong ties with the faculty, a comprehensive survey of every faculty member was 
undertaken. This provided the center with the opportunity to clearly explain to the faculty the role of 
CITE, determine the technology needs of the faculty, and to establish a baseline measurement of the 
faculty's technological skills. The information gleamed from the survey will be used to organize training 
sessions covering the hardware and software needs of the faculty. Related to this is the center's extensive 
involvement in the hosting of a technology conference at Northwest. The goal is to encourage a wide 
range of faculty to participate in the conference. 

As its first full year as a functional center comes to a close, the Center for Information Technology in 
Education can look back at a long list of accomplishments. A key element in the success of the center 
was the strong support provided by the administration in terms of both budget and status. The center 
quickly became a critical component in several of the university-wide initiatives and in the continuing 
effort on the part of the university to enhance the technological abilities of its faculty. 

As development of course materials in association with faculty members continues, and as more courses 
are offered on the web, the role of the center will become more central to the mission of the university. It 
is in light of this role that the center must maintain strong ties to both the administration and the faculty 
in order to further the goals of the university and to best serve the needs of the students of Northwest 
Missouri State University. 


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Web-based Tools for Instruction and Engineering Applications 

Faculty Collaboration on Multidisciplinary Web-Based Education 


Dr. Ashraf Saad, Information Engineering Technology 
Dr. Vladimir L. Uskov, Information Engineering Technology 
Associate Professor Kettil Cedercreutz, Mechanical Technology Department 
Dr. Sam Geonetta, Humanities and Social Sciences Department 
Professor Jack Spille, Chemical Technology Department 
Professor Dick Abel, Professional Practice and Career Placement Department 
QMI College of Applied Science 



Interdepartmental Collaboration 

Main Project Outcomes 

Other Findings 

Future Work 



Paper Abstract 

Teaching, learning, and doing business online through the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) are 
bound to change the structure of our traditional educational and business institutions. However, the 
effects will be more greatly felt by those who are directly involved in education. This motivated six 
professors of five different departments of the OMI College of Applied Science, University of 
Cincinnati (UC), for the interdepartmental collaboration in enhancing the professional development of 
OCAS faculty on WWW-based education. The paper describes in details the main outcome of the UC 
Faculty Development Grant - i.e. OCAS faculty "brainware" on WWW-based education, which enabled 
several OCAS professors to create WWW-based courseware in various technological areas. 

[To pi 

1. Motivation 

The Internet is having a profound impact on the delivery of instruction and the means for conducting 
business. Each day, millions of users harness its interconnectivity to access forums or databases, enroll 
in online courses, and supply information online to clients, vendors, and staff. In increasing numbers, 
organizations are implementing corporate-wide Web sites and Intranets. Intranets, which are 
implemented via Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area networks (WAN), utilize many of the 
same Internet services and features internally within the organization (and hence the name for this type 
of networks) - and therefore more securely. 

Whether over the Web or over an intranet, a variety of instructional tools are becoming commercially 
available to help instructors in preparing for the delivery of courses online, either in support of distance 
education goals or as complimentary to a traditional course offering. On the business side, collaboration 
tools are being developed to enable engineers to cooperatively design a product over the Web, regardless 
of their "physical" presence in the world. Web-based tools being developed for both areas of instruction 
(teaching/leaming) and engineering (product development/project management) have one objective in 



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1 1/30/99 4:40 PM 

Web-based Tools for Instruction and Engineering Applications 


available to help instructors in preparing for the delivery of courses online, either in support of distance 
education goals or as complimentary to a traditional course offering. On the business side, collaboration 
tools are being developed to enable engineers to cooperatively design a product over the Web, regardless 
of their "physical" presence in the world. Web-based tools being developed for both areas of instruction 
(teaching/leaming) and engineering (product development/project management) have one objective in 
common: to provide sufficient features and software functions that would enable a group of individuals to 
communicate online in pursuit of their common goal — either instruction or product development. 


2. Interdepartmental Collaboration 

Project Team. The authors, faculty members in several departments of the 0M3 College of Applied Science 
(OCAS) at University of Cincinnati (UC), started a project in 1998 as an interdepartmental collaboration to 
investigate the use of Web-Based Instructional (WBI) tools at our college [1], The project team included 
representatives from various areas such as Information Engineering Technology, Mechanical Engineering 
Technology, Chemical Technology, Professional Practice and Career Placement, and Humanities and 
Social Science, thereby providing an objective multi-disciplinary performance of the project and evaluation 
of its results. 

Goals. Two project goals were set since the beginning of our project: 

a. As an interdepartmental and multi-disciplinary team, to form a kernel of instructors at OCAS who 
acquired the know-how of Distance Education (DE), including Web-Based Education (WBE), and 
WBI tools, and therefore ready to 

b. develop a pool of faculty at OCAS and at UC on the use of WBI tools at WBE through a series of 
workshops and training seminars. 

Methods. The following set of activities were deemed necessary to achieve both goals: 

1. individual faculty development on various WBI tools, DE and WBE-related aspects, such as 
organizational models of DE systems, DE hardware, DE software, DE courseware, DE students, DE 
teachers, DE facilitators and administrators, grants and funding in the DE area; 

2. regular faculty interdepartmental group discussions on instructional technology and pedagogical 
methodology of Web-Based Education, and demonstrations of WBI tools; 

3. attending hands-on training and workshops/seminars on Web-Based Instructional tools, and 

4. team-working, peer-to-peer mentoring system, and individual instruction and consulting with 
participating OCAS faculty. 

Faculty Development. As a result of this project each faculty - project participant, succeeded to: 

a. Develop himself independently on various selected topics of DE, WBE and WBI tools, and make a 
minimum of one presentation at an OCAS faculty meeting, thereby providing an interdepartmental 
faculty development and collaboration. 

b. Attend a minimum of one DE or WBE-related national training seminar and a minimum one 
top-ranked national/intemational related conference during the project period. Make a presentation 
about this seminar and conference for the OCAS faculty. 

c. Attend meetings twice a month to discuss findings and generate ideas/solutions on various 
topics/problems of WBE. In particular: pedagogical methodology, instructional technology, 

"student- teacher" and "student-student" communications in virtual classrooms, Web page and WBE 
courseware design and development, various WBI tools, suitable forms of video-, audio-, and 



Web-based Tools for Instruction and Engineering Applications 

data-conferencing via the Internet, as well as other'topics 
d. Submit at least one proposal to present a project-related paper at a professional conference in 1999 

°" e project - rela,ed t0 a scholar b journal for possible publication in ' 

f. Ac q u “ necessary hardware, software, and textbooks on DE, WBE, and WBI tools, as well as books 
on different educational technologies and pedagogical aspects of DE and WBE. 


3. Main Project Outcomes 

a°s U pecro e f # DE TOe’C'SS'T" °" pr ° jeCt team conducKd research t0 id <="«y various 

aspects of DE WBE, and DE systems worldwide. Particularly, the list of research topics included but was 

limited tol) the examples of well-known international and national (USA) DE systems, as well as 

sma er local DE systems, 2) models of DE systems (international, national (USA), local), 3) generations of 

re a e tec no ogy and popular DE media /support technologies, 4) organizational aspects of DE 5) 

DE degree programs DE credit/noncredit courses, 6) DE teachers, and DE facilitators, 7) DE classrooms 

Tn rH 1 ? ’ 8 D f E targCted ^ dent b0dy “ i ’ e - DE students ’ 9) DE tuition fee, 10) DE administrators, 

11) list of features of common DE system (international, national (USA), and local), 12) costs of DE 

hardw^courseware, and software, 13) financial support/initial investments to DE systems, 14) DE 
students, DE teachers, andDE facilitators, and 15) "No Significant Phenomenon" of DE education 
Numerous DE systems worldwide have been analyzed such as: 

1) mil-known international DE systems: National Technological University (USA) lhttp://www nm edu ] 

(cl™da)[hn W H Slty ,1 Um i tedKi ^ 8d ° m (UK) ^P ://ww ^], British Columbia DE System 
(Canada) [ htt p:// ], The Open University of The Netherlands (The Netherlands) 

at m:// ], The University of South Africa - UNISA (South Africa) rhtto://www,,ni sa a . 

KnZ mTT gen rU 1 ^ UStrali , a ( ^ UStralia) ^ :/ /], Open Learning Institute of Hong 
in.em ^ DE^.ems e " a " Za * DiS,a " Cia (Spain) and other 

2) Well-known national DE systems: The Pennsylvania State University (USA) [httt>V/www cde nsn erini 
The Indiana State University [http://www.ind ner] The INTEC College (South Africa) * JL “‘ ’ 
[hL gV/ ] Monash University (Australia) fh_tt P :// edn au] institute Nacional 

n?ff Ed // CaCa °if DlStanCia (BraZl ) r Horizons University (France) 
[] and other national DE systems. 

DE ayatems: Bellevue Community College (CC) rhttp://online.bcc.utn ed„l Clackamas CC 
hl ip. /dl.Qlackamas.ccnrns] , Laratiue County CC rhttp://www.lcc whom eH„l Cerro Coso CC 
fpftp.// nsj , Cosumnes River College fhttp://crc.losnos Contact South - a 
Consorttum of Ontano Colleges (Canada) [http://www.contac, south oral and other local DE Kms A 

i rary of on-line courses in the information Technology area can also be found at the University of 
Cincinnati rhttp://gartner.uc.edn/partner] y U1 

The detailed results of our investigation on DE systems are presented in [2], 

Qutcome # 2 - Faculty "brainware" on WBI tools. We conducted research to identify the features and 

WBF ’cn‘lric,l Van H 0US WI “ Ca " enaWe a " instructor 10 desi S"- dCT elop, maintain and manage 
WBE curricula and courses. Vendors were contacted for demo versions of products Members of the 

project team met regularly to discuss various WBE-related issues and,' specifically advantages 

disadvantages, features, and problems encountered during pilot course creation. More than twenty 


>f 5 


Web-based Tools for Instruction and Engineering Applications 

available WBE tools were selected for analysis on the first stage of research. They were ToolBook 

^ anULto rhy/www.asymetrix coml. AuthorWare' fh to ://www— 

riT^ P '^ SSWare ' UC ' edu -*’ Convene f http://www.convene.coml Courselnfo 

[ ntt ]3://www J 3 11 rseinfo ], Director [] FirstClass Collaborative 
H i| SS '°° m [ ^ ://www educario ™m J, Front Page'98 rhttp.V/ com] w a ko. 

[] ~ , P ,. wwan * on com ], Learning Space [htt p:// ce]. MentorWare 
[ 7777 ^ 7, W ^ W ], TopClass rhUp.V/www.wbtsvste ms.comindex.htmll . Virtual-U 

^ bCTrhft' // CS? ^ V,1Weh ] 1 ’ wu C ° UrSe in 2 B ° X rhttP://www.madd, m n 
WebCT [M p.V/www. ], Webmentor Enterprise [ht mi^avilar.adasoft.coml . as well a. MnrtJ 
Connect, Allaire Forum, Team Wave, WebBoard, QuestionMark, and PiaceWare. 

Features of WBI tools, usually, fall under three categories [3], specifically, 1) WBI tools for WBE 
c urs ware esign and development, 2) WBI tools for WBE courseware management and 3) WBI tools for 
"student-student" and "student(s)-teacher" communications via the Internet. 

Course design tools include: 1) course templates to maintain consistency to the course format and provide 
the instructor with he tool to easily publish a course on the Web by focusing on the content that will be 
entered in the template, without having to worry about learning HTML, 2) search tools to provide a topic- 

w ,h se „ ?T e material ’ and 3; ^‘-related “nks: to refer students to other web sites 
With information pertaining to the course, without having to exit the course site. 

Course management tools include 1) on-line assessment tools such as quiz/test generation, administration 

courfrmarnn 7 ^, 5 T" \ ^ qUeSti ° nS ’ “ d 2j student trackin S tools to track student access of’ 

course matenal as well as student progress on assignments and tests. 

Course communication/collaboration tools [4] include 1) synchronous communication - support for live 
interaction such as chat rooms, shared whiteboards, audio- and video- conferencing, and 2) asynchronous 
communication such as built-in email, file sharing, threaded discussions, bulletin boards, and workgroups. 

As a resuit of our research the variety of available WBE tools was reduced to several applications for 
twocategwtas a " d '"‘ depth conslderatlon and utilization by OCAS faculty. These applications fall under 

L |S 

ClassWare, Blackboard, WebCT, and Asymetrix ToolBook II Assistant. 

2. WBI tools for instructors with strong programming skills and strong background in computer 
science: WebCT, Asymetrix ToolBook H Librarian, and Macromedia Director. 

The second group of applications offers more advanced tools/features for the creation of Web-based 
courses at the expense of learning how to utilize those tools/features. 

[To p] 

4. Other findings 

While our project has primarily focused on DE, WBE and WBI tools, our investigation had led us to 
conclude that features of WBI tools can be readily deployed in a collaborative multidisciplinary 
engineering environment. Nowadays, many engineering companies cannot have the experts needed for the 
development of a given product under the same roof. For instance, a number of engineering dSines 
come together in order to develop and produce an electromechanical device (e.g. a^ellula/telephone) 

0 Ch dlglta eIectronics - mechanical engineering, production engineering, and even environmental ’ 


>f 5 


Web-based Tools for Instruction and Engineering Applications 



engineering - to decide on which environmentally-friendly materials can be used for the product Experts 
in each field can utilize an on-line collaboration tool to interact while designing the product, therefore 
breaking the barrier of distance between them. It is therefore extremely beneficial for the students of our 
College to learn how to deploy and use WBI tools, since such skills will be highly valued by their future 
employers. Going forward, our objective is therefore to first get students familiar with these tools through 
the learning experience of a course that utilizes them. The next step would be to require them to master one 
of these tools, augment it, and then deploy it as a collaboration tool in an engineering setting for 
cooperative multidisciplinary problem-solving. & 


5. Future Work 

Future activities of the project team in 1999-2000 deal with a design and development of pilot WBE 
courseware in various technological areas that are appropriate for the College of Applied Science 
University of Cincinnati. 


6. References 

1. V. Uskov, A. Saad, S. Geonetta, J. Spille, K. Cedercreutz, and D. Abel (1998). Interdepartmental 
Collaboration In Enhancing the Professional Development of College of 

Applied Science Faculty on WWW-based Education: Preparation for Teaching in the 21st 

Century", Faculty Development Council, University of Cincinnati, March 1998. 

2. V. Uskov (1998). Systems of Distance Education: Design, Development, and Grants/Funding 

Available. Proceedings of the 15 th IFIP World Computer Congress, Vienna, Austria. 

3. S. Gray (1998). Web-based Instructional Tools. Syllabus, September 1998. 

4. S. Gray (1999). Collaboration Tools. Syllabus, January 1999. 



Dr. Ashraf Saad, Information Engineering Technology 

Dr. Vladimir L. Uskov, Information Engineering Technology 

Associate Professor Kettil Cedercreutz, Mechanical Technology Department 

Dr. Sam Geonetta, Humanities and Social Sciences Department 

Professor Jack Spille, Chemical Technology Department 

Professor Dick Abel, Professional Practice and Career Placement Department 

All authors are members of 
OMI College of Applied Science 

University of Cincinnati 
2220 Victory Parkway 
Cincinnati, OH 45206 




PortraiU)f the Early- Adopter: Survey of 


Portrait of the Early- Adopter: Survey of 
Instructors of WWW Courses, Spring 1998 

Carol W. Wilson, Instructor 
Computer Science Department 
Western Kentucky University 

Abstract: A portrait of the early-adopter of WWW courses is painted in the results of a survey of the 71 
instructors who had a WWW course listed on the Southern Regional Electronic Campus (SREC) site 
during the first semester of its operation, Spring 1998. Data about their perceptions, practices, concerns, 
and the institutional norms under which they work were collected. The data collected from the survey 
yielded a prioritized list of faculty concerns and needs. Institutions must develop the infrastructure to 
provide: technical training, technical support, administrative support, time for faculty to develop and 
teach these courses, a revised faculty reward system, and reliable computer hardware. The delivery of 
distance education on the WWW has great potential that can not be realized until the needs and concerns 
of the faculty that will develop the courses are met. 

Because instructional delivery on the Internet is such a new application, there is no existing body of 
research available. For the most part, journal articles address broad policy issues or are anecdotal, 
describing the implementation of a particular course. The few surveys that have been done are mainly 
concerned with quantifying the number of courses and the number of students. Dillon and Walsh(1992) 
conducted an analysis of 255 articles from five major distance education journals. Of these articles, only 
twenty-four dealt with faculty issues in distance education. Because a committed and well- trained 
faculty is the key to the successful delivery of distance education, there is a need for basic research in 
faculty issues related to the delivery of distance education on the Internet. 

Rodgers (1983) developed broad categories to classify technology adoptors: innovators, early adoptors, 
early majority, late majority, and laggards. The early adoptors have a high degree of opinion leadership 
and the organization looks to them for cues, information, and advice for adopting new technologies 
(Rodgers, 1983). This valuable knowledge was captured by surveying a group of early adoptors who 
developed and delivered a course on the WWW to learn from their experiences and identify their needs 
and concerns.. Data about their perceptions, practices, concerns, and the institutional norms under which 
they work were collected. 

The sample for the study was limited to the instructors of the 77 WWW courses listed on the Southern 
Regional Electronic Campus (SREC) site for the Spring 1998 semester. This was the first semester of 
operation for the SREC. The instructors' names and mailing addresses were obtained by following links 
from the SREC site back to the offering institutions. The 77 listed courses were being taught by 71 
different instructors. Surveys were mailed to these instructors. Thirty six (50.7%) responses were 
received, but five courses were canceled or not offered during Spring 1998, leaving 31 (43.7%) usable 

The respondents formed a cross-section of postsecondary faculty. Their teaching fields were from 
various disciplines: 26% social science, 26% humanities, 35% scientific/technical, and 13% business. 
They also taught in a variety of types of institutions: 7% large universities, 58% regional universities, 
32% community colleges or technical schools, and 3% correspondence studies. 

The instructors surveyed represent an experienced, teaching faculty. They averaged 16.4 years of 
teaching experience with a range of 1 to 36 years. Sixteen of the 17 instructors, who were currently 



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Portrait of the Early-Adopter: Survey of"'itconf/proceed99/wilson.htm 

taught in a variety of types of institutions: 7% large universities, 58% regional universities, 32% 
community colleges or technical schools, and 3% correspondence studies. 

The instructors surveyed represent an experienced, teaching faculty. They averaged 16.4 years of teaching 
experience with a range of 1 to 36 years. Sixteen of the 17 instructors, who were currently teaching in a 
tenure-track position, had already earned tenure. Their typical workload was broken down as follows: 
teaching 63%, research 8%, public service 11%, and other 18%. The "other" category was mostly 
administrative duties. 

Chi-square tests were made to determine if there was a difference in instructors' concerns based on the 
discipline (humanity, social science, science/tech, or business) or type of postsecondary institution (large 
university, regional university, community college or technical school, or correspondence studies). Faculty 
concerns about web-based distance education were universal. The chi-square tests indicated that almost all 
differences were not statistically significant. The following table ranks the instructors' concerns in 
descending order. 

Table 1 

Concerns Ranked in Descending Order 

(Measured on a 5 pt. Likert Scale 1 = Minor Concern 5 = Major Concern) 


Sd. Dev 

% (Choosing 4 or 5) 

Sufficient time to develop and maintain course 
! material 

4.133 : 



Technical support 

3.710 ] 



Administrative support 

3.613 ! 



Sufficient time to interact with students 

3.355 | 



Technical training 

3.194 j 



Student familiarity with computers 




Equipment problems 

3.097 | 



Academic honesty 

2.968 : 



Necessary equipment available in faculty 

2.903 j 



Student access to computers 

2.867 j 



Web course design 

2.839 j 



Student assessment/grading 

2.733 | 



; Intellectual property rights 

2.700 j 




Portrait of the Early- Adopter: Survey of^proceed99/wilson.htm 

Sufficient Time to Develop and Maintain Course Material. As seen in Table 1, the instructors' number one 
concern was the necessary time to develop and maintain their courses. Sixty-eight percent of the teachers 
rated this a major concern. The respondents were critically aware of this problem because 81% of them 
personally developed at least 75% of their courses. A science/technology instructor observed, "It takes a lot 
of time and effort initially. Also faculty need proper training in online development (curriculum 
conversion)." A business instructor commented, "Need financial support and release time. Very time 

The reported length of time required to develop a course was difficult to quantify. The amount of time that 
developers reported was in different units of measurement and some represented full-time effort and others 
part-time effort. Seven instructors reported their effort in hours of full-time work. The development time 
ranged from 48 to 300+ hours with a mean of 152 hours. Four instructors reported the time in weeks, with 
a range of 5 to 6 weeks and a mean of 5.8 weeks. Fifteen instructors reported the time in months of 
part-time effort. The time ranged from 3 to 18 months with a mean of 6.6 months. Two instructors 
expressed the development time as "A lot!" and "More than I got paid for." No matter how it was 
measured, the development time was substantial. 

Institutions have recognized the burden of course development for the WWW. Fifty-eight percent of the 
instructors surveyed received release time or financial incentive for developing the course. The most 
common incentive was release time. Nine (29%) instructors received a one- course load reduction while 
developing the course. Nine (29%) instructors received financial compensation ranging from $1,500 to 
$1 1,000, with a mean of approximately $3,600. . 

Few rewards exist for the time consuming task of maintaining the course. Only four instructors reported 
receiving any compensation. One received a one-time-only one-course load reduction, one was 
"discussing" the issue, and two, who were paid on a correspondence course model, received a small 
amount per student. 

Eleven (35%) of the instructors reported receiving additional help or incentives for teaching the course. 

One was assigned a graduate assistant. Two received a one-course load reduction. Two were paid a lump 
sum, $2,500 and $3,500, for teaching the course. Six were paid per student enrolled or lesson graded. 

Technical Support/Technical Training. Technical support and technical training ranked among the top five 
concerns. 65% of the instructors rated technical support a major problem despite the fact that 67% of the 
instructors reported having a department on campus to assist in the technical development of a web course. 
Only two instructors commented that their support department was "excellent" or would help with "any 
need". The following is a typical comment: "Lack of technical support staff. I am responsible for all 

There is a problem matching faculty needs with technical support services. Why? This is an area that 
requires further study. The instructors were aware that technical support services existed but they were not 
taking advantage of the services, had difficulty accessing the services, or the services were inadequate. 

Technical training was also reported to be inadequate. Sixty-one percent of the instructors surveyed 
received no training in web-course development and only four instructors, out of the 12 who had received 
any training, reported that the training was adequate. A social science instructor commented, "[I attended] 
conference sessions and workshops [and did a] tremendous amount of reading. Didn't "receive" training - 
got it myself." 



Portrait of the Early-Adopter: Survey of 

Administrative Support. Administrative support ranked third as a major concern. Administrative support 
encompasses such issues as the institutional climate for distance education, and promotion/tenure. The 
SREC WWW distance education courses were being taught by curriculum pioneers. Forty-four percent of 
the courses were taught for the first time in Spring 1998 and 84% of the courses were taught three or fewer 
times. Only two instructors reported that they felt administrative pressure to develop web courses. The 
spirit of the pioneering instructor was expressed in the following comment: "[I] decided to join the 
computer age & enhance [my] skills vs. going for early retirement or being left behind." 

But not all comments were positive. The administration has expressed its commitment to distance 
education, but often the supporting institutional infrastructure has not yet been created. A regional 
university instructor complained, "The institutional climate is good. The department climate stinks. This 
university has made a commitment to distance education, but most of my colleagues are resisting. I am a 
renegade!" A community college instructor commented, "There are a lot of unanswered questions about 
web-based courses at our school. I did the course because I am interested in it - not because of financial 
support or administrative pressure." 

Concerns about capping course enrollment and compensation for teaching large classes were often 
expressed. The following comments were from instructors at regional universities: 

• Concern - allowing too many to enroll. Administrative folk want to enroll large number[s] in web 

• Some administrators see only the potential cost savings, not the opportunity to do more and better 

Faculty members generally support the concept of using technology to improve instruction, but using 
technology to reduce costs is a volatile political concern. They argue that reducing costs with the aid of 
technology "translates into reducing the number of faculty members and increasing student-faculty ratios" 
(DeSieno, p. 2). Teaching is not a mechanical process that can be delivered without human interaction. 

However, evidence of large enrollments was not supported by the data gathered. The class sizes ranged 
from 2 - 150. The median class size was 21 and only one course enrolled more than 30 students. 

Forty-eight percent of the instructors reported that developing and teaching a WWW course did not count 
toward promotion or tenure and an additional 26% reported that they did not know if it counted. There can 
be little incentive to develop a WWW course if it does not count in faculty productivity. 

Nowhere are the challenges more pivotal than in the area of institutional support for faculty. Faculty 
members and administrators must work together in identifying and resolving the issues that inhibit 
systematic use of distance education in meeting academic goals. 

Sufficient Time to Interact with Students. Sufficient time to interact with students was ranked as a major 
concern by 45% of the instructors surveyed. This issue is closely related to the changing role of the 
instructor in distance education. The teacher becomes a mentor rather than a sage and directs student 
learning. This requires frequent communication with the students. The most common communication 
mediums cited in the survey were: e-mail, fax, listserv, bulletin board, chat room, phone, and postal 
service. The following comment emphasizes the time requirements of teaching on-line: 

• With being on-line, I have to keep constant contact with the class to make sure that they are on 
schedule. Some of them are doing well, others are not due to the lack of responsibility on their part. 
Grading is taking a great deal of effort since it is done on computer. 

Portrait of the Early-Adopter: Survey of 

Student Familiarity with Computers/Equipment Problems. These are inter-related concerns that are also 
institutional problems. For a web based distance education program to be successful the institution must 
provide a reliable computer network with convenient and timely remote access. The students must also be 
provided with training in basic computer literacy and have a resource to contact when there are technical 
problems. One instructor commented, "Our institution is having problems ... the computer system is not 
100% reliable for an on-line course to be fully successful." 

The instructor has no direct control over the reliability of the hardware, but an unreliable computer system 
can adversely affect student satisfaction with the course. Because faculty- teaching evaluations are 
dependent on student satisfaction, the instructor is ultimately held responsible for the unreliable system. 

Conclusions . In the pilot study the survey instrument successfully quantified the needs and concerns of the 
pioneering SREC instructors who developed and taught a distance education course on the WWW. 
Institutions must develop the infrastructure to provide: technical training, technical support, administrative 
support, time for faculty to develop and teach these courses, a revised faculty reward system, and reliable 
computer hardware. Faculty concerns about web-based distance education were universal and not 
significantly different based on the discipline (humanity, social science, science/tech, or business) or type 
of postsecondary institution (large university, regional university, community college or technical school, 
or correspondence studies). 

One of the respondents commented on the status of web-based distance education: "Widespread 
understanding of the potential is yet to materialize. There is considerable fear of the unknown." The 
delivery of distance education on the WWW has great potential that can not be realized until the needs and 
concerns of the faculty that will develop the courses are meet. 


DeSieno, R. (1995). Netlaw: the faculty and digital technology. Educom Review. 30 (4). 1-3. 

Dillon, C. L., & Walsh, S. M. (1992). Faculty: the neglected resource in distance education. The American 
Journal of Distance education. 6 (3), 5-21. 

Distance Education and Training Council. (1996). "Distance Education survey, 1996: A report on Course 
structure and educational practices in distance education and training council member institutions". 43 
pages. ED407562 

Elrod, G. F. & Kelley, V. C. (1998). Maybe the emperor is naked: concerns on the brave new world of 
distance education. Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference. April 5-7, 1998, Murfreesboro, TN. 

Fagan, P. J. (1997). Assessment of distance education implementation in Iowa: Concerns and indicators of 
success. In N. J. Maushak (Ed.), Encyclopedia of distance education research in Iowa (2nd ed.) (pp. 

23-28). Ames: Iowa Distance Education Alliance. 

Gabany, S. G. (1996). Putting a class up on the web. [Online], 7 pages. Available: 
http://www.ind.nct/fdpapers/#table [1997, Feb. 2], 

Moore, S. (1997). The role of the teacher in distance education: The teacher perspective. Proceedings of 
the Annual International Conference of the Chair Academy (6th, Reno, NV, February 12-15, 1997). 



8/i 1/99 mnn am 

Portrait of the Early-Adopter: Survey of 

National Center for Educational Statistics. (1997). Distance education in higher education institutions. 
[Online], 33 pages. Available: [1998, Jan. 29]. 

Peraya, D. (1994). Distance education and the WWW. [Online], 8 pages. Available: [1998, Feb. 7]. 

Rodgers, E. M. (1983). Diffusions of Innovations (3 rd ed.). New York: The Free Press. 

Sherron, T. S. (1998). In support of distance learning. Syllabus 11 (7). 44-47. 

Sherry, L. (1996). Issues in distance learning. [Online], 21 pages. Available: [1997, June 16]. 

SREB. (1997). Survey report of SREB state regulations as they apply to distance learning. [Online], 12 
pages. Available: [1998, July, 15]. 

SREB. (1998). Dramatic expansions are announced for Southern Regional Electronic Campus. [Online], 2 
pages. Available: http://www.sreb. org/scripts/news/newsl.asp?Code=1018 [1998, July 15]. 

SREC. (1997). Southern Regional Electronic Campus created by Southern Regional Education Board 
provides 15-state electronic marketplace for students. [Online], 4 pages. Available: [1998, July, 15]. 


Carol W. Wilson, Instructor 
Computer Science Department 
Western Kentucky University 
Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 


Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

Taking It Online: A Bootstraps Approach 

Ms. Ginger Sabine, Department Chair, Computer Information Systems, Northwestern Technical Institute 
Dr. Daryl Gilley, Vice President for Instruction, Northwestern Technical Institute 

Planning Phase 
Design Phase 

The Production/Trial Phase 
The Evaluation Phase 
The Implementation Phase 
Appendix A 

Abstract: Describes the process of creating an online course using locally produced lessons, 
supplemental text, threaded discussion groups, online examinations, and student access to a transparent 
third party URL. The Microsoft Office User Specialist Certificate takes advantage of transparent access 
to a third party software vendor to provide software demonstrations for online students. The presentation 
will present an overview of the development process form conception to delivery and will include an 
online demonstration of the course. 

[To pi 

Taking It Online: A Bootstraps Approach 


In 1454 Johann Gutenberg printed what is widely considered to be the first book using movable type. 
The Gutenberg Bible, printed at Mainz, Germany, had 42 lines per page. This event precipitated an 
enormous publishing explosion allowing information to be distributed to the masses. A similar 
information explosion is happening today via the World Wide Web and Internet. Oddly enough we are 
suffering some of the same problems that the publishing industry experienced during its formative years. 
It took a number of years for example for things we take for granted today to become standardized. 
Practices such as page numbering, including a table of contents in the document, creating an index, and 
including title pages were all left to the publisher’s discretion. Today those involved in publishing on the 
web find themselves in a similar situation. There is precious little in the way of standardization 
regarding material prepared for delivery on the web. Materials prepared for instructional purposes are 
not exempt from this lack of standardization either. However, this problem is being resolved much more 
quickly today than it was in Gutenberg’s time. There is already much more standardization with regard 
to online publishing than there was just two years ago. It still seems to be the publisher’s decision, 
however. In academic circles this responsibility falls by default to the college or university or maybe 
even a department in the university. 

In November 1 997, with the support of the administration in the form of resources and time, several 
members of the faculty of Northwestern Technical Institute made a conscious decision and commitment 
to develop courses of study for delivery over the World Wide Web. However, even with significant 
preplanning, to paraphrase another group of early explorers, "we were blindly going where no one had 
gone before." Choosing to create an online course with little or no previous experience posed a daunting 
challenge for the team investigating what we then called, alternative instructional delivery. At the outset 
the Northwestern team consisted of 10 members. Today three of the original team members have 



1 01 1U 


11/30/99 4:41 PM 

Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

preplanning, to paraphrase another group of early explorers, "we were blindly going where no one had 
gone before." Choosing to create an online course with little or no previous experience posed a daunting 
challenge for the team investigating what we then called, alternative instructional delivery. At the outset 
the Northwestern team consisted of 10 members. Today three of the original team members have persisted 
and have courses currently on the web. During that same period of time, the college also became a 
founding member of the Georgia Virtual Technical Institute, a consortium of institutions offering web 
based courses, but that is another story. 

This paper provides an overview of one instructor’s journey to the WEB. Taking a course online requires a 
significant expenditure of effort from several sources; the faculty member designing the course, the 
technical support staff who create and manage the network, and the administration who support the project 
with the allowance of time and resources. 

Faculty training was an important issue early on. Even though the developer, Ms. Ginger Sabine, was a 
computer information science instructor, creating a course for the web was a new and often frustrating 
experience. The learning curve included developing a mastery of new software, working through 
instructional strategy issues, many of which were discovered as a part of the instructional design process; 
and discovering new ways to demonstrate skills to a remote audience. In hindsight and in the best of all 
possible worlds, additional time and training in the use of software products would have been very 
beneficial to all involved. In fact, to ensure success and minimize attrition early education and training is 

What we will describe in this paper is the route taken by Ms. Sabine at Northwestern from concept to 
product. We will make every effort to point out failures or what we would do differently and likewise will 
describe the "good" decisions that were made. 

The first attempt at going online consisted of the following stages: 

I. The Planning Phase 

II. The Design Phase 

m. The Production/Trial Phase 

IV. The Evaluation Phase 

V. The Implementation Phase 

I Top] 

Planning Phase 

In the planning phase, Ms. Sabine as a member of a design team of faculty and staff, set about the task of 
creating a framework around which web-based courses could be developed. Team members involved in the 
design process identified the following considerations to help guide the project: 

• Alternative delivery courses should provide for asynchronous instructional delivery. 

• Alternative delivery courses should be available on demand 

• Alternative delivery courses should include e-mail in the communication protocol 

• Alternative delivery courses should provide for the participation in labs from remote sites. 

• Alternative delivery courses should allow for simulation. 

• Alternative delivery courses should include all aspects of the course of study or supplements to the 
course of study that are made available to the student in a traditional class. 

In addition to the considerations listed above, the design team agreed upon the following design decisions 


Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

This was based upon a review of the available literature on the design of web based classes. 

1 . Each online course would contain the same level of academic rigor as a traditional course. 

2. A common format-i.e., "look and feel"- would be developed and used by all developers 

3. A common software application would be chosen and used by all developers. 

4. Course development would be modular. 

5. Each course would be offered online to an in house class in a pilot phase before publishing the 
course to the web. 

6. Each online course would contain the same or at least very similar learning activities. 

7. t he syllabus format would be as similar to the traditional course as possible. (See syllabus format for 
web classes in Appendix A) 


Design Phase 

The course developed by Sabine was an introductory course to the Windows operating system, the first 
course developed for the Microsoft Office User Specialist program, one of two programs Northwestern 
offers in partnership with Microsoft. As is typical of most introductory computer courses taught in the 
traditional manner, this course consisted of four major components: lecture, practice labs, assignments, and 

Web-based courses, it was learned, are very much a sum of many parts. Of these parts there are at least two 
organizational decisions that a developer must make when creating a course for the web. One decision 
deals with the treatment of educational outcomes or the organization of competencies that the student will 
be required to learn or master. The second decision revolves around the creation of the various course 
components such as units of study, learning resources, simulations, production labs, assessment, etc. (See 
figure A.) 

Figure A 


Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

Instructor: ^ls; -G. •: Sabin*. 

Fhpne. (705-764 -37 1 4 E-mail: gsabhe@a<lnnn 1. \valker.tec ' 

Credit ILs.: 3 

Course Description 

Provides studen: with the interface concepts o: Microsoft Windows 
software- jind the opportiinly to dmrelop settwarf: appltmhr.n skill? n* 
wide range of business s:tuatipr.s.- 

Sabine chose to deal with the course competency areas in the form of instructional modules. The 
competencies were the same as those taught in the traditional class. Modules were arranged to match the 
academic calendar-that is, 10 weeks. Each module consisted of a self-contained instructional package 
including goals of the module, specific learning objectives, various types of learning resources and 
assessment. By design, students were forced to satisfactorily complete a module before moving on to the 
next. Course components included in the Sabine design framework are listed below. 

The components of this course differed from those of other developers but each developer did adhere to a 
mutually agreed upon course template, course design format, and page format. Typically, however all 
initial web courses developed consisted of units of study or modules, both on-line and off-line resources 
earning activities, and examinations. The specific components of this course are described below. 

Home - This button brings you back to this page. 

Syllabus - This page contains a copy of the course syllabus. 

• Modules - This is the backbone of the course. CIS 155 is broken down into 10 modules each 
containing a number of objectives. The student must successfully complete one module to progress 
to the next. At the end of each objective, a button exists which will link the student to the next 
objective. If at any time the students becomes lost, they can click the Module button on the side of 
every page and it will bring them back to the beginning. Upon completion of each module the 
student will be required to complete a test. Students who do not successfully complete the test may 
trace back through the module until they are able to successfully complete that module's test. 
Assignments - This page contains a condensed list of all assignments in this course. 

Tutorial - This page explains how to log-on to the tutorial software. 

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best copy available 


Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

• Glossary - This page contains the glossary search engine. This glossary will search every page for 
instances of words typed in the text box. The glossary will also display the words of the glossary by 
first letter of the word. The student chooses the letter that the word starts with, and the glossary will 
link to the appropriate page. 

• Discussion - This course component includes a discussion group where students can post articles 
about problems they encounter or tips and resources that other class members might want to know 


The Production Phase 

After the project design was agreed upon, the instructor began the process of recreating a course of study 
that could be delivered, with assessment of competencies mastered over the WEB. Faculty were provided 
orientation and instruction in the use of web publishing software and course management software. Their 
task then was to repackage the content typically presented in a traditional format so that it would fit into 
this new delivery vehicle. A number of problems surfaced, which were quickly followed by unique and 
innovative solutions. 

The problem of how to demonstrate a procedure, skill, or technique over the web was an issue that had to 
be contended with early on. In the process of developing a course in the Windows operating system, an 
arrangement was made with a third party vendor so that NTI students could have transparent access to that 
vendor’s URL. This particular vendor sold demonstrations of popular software applications such as 
Windows, Word, Visual Basic, etc. By linking to the vendor’s URL, the demonstrations could be streamed 
into the student’s computer on demand. The use of third party vendor software was important in getting 
this particular course online in record time. If the faculty member had been required to develop the 
demonstrations, the course would have been at least six months longer in development. 

The problem of simulating classroom interaction was addressed with the use of threaded discussion groups, 
where one question or answer to an e-mail inquiry may prompt other questions and answers from both 
students and instructor. Threaded discussion groups compare favorably to in-class discussions and may 
even be superior in that student questions are well thought out before being submitted. 

Communication with students should have been simple. E-mail is immediate and reliable. However, 
complicated messages are sometimes difficult to articulate and to understand using e-mail. It requires 
someone who is an accomplished writer and technically competent in the subject area. The absence of the 
human element in communication was a very real detriment to effective instruction, especially when 
responding to student questions. E-mail communication then was incomplete at best and impossibly 
frustrating at worst. There were many times when the instructor and the student resorted to using the 

Testing and administrative issues were some of the more difficult problems to resolve. In this course the 
instructor chose to manage the assessment portion of the course personally rather than depend upon 
available course management software. Tests and examinations were created and graded by the instructor. 
Students were notified by email when tests would be available and the constraints under which they would 
be administered-i.e. time, allowable resources, type of test, etc. All tests were timed. Students could take 
the test at any time during a given calendar period, but once started the test had to be completed in a set 
amount of time. The completed test also had to be submitted within a set period of time from when it was 
begun. This part of the course, therefore, is not asynchronous, but rather governed by scheduled testing 


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Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

Other faculty at Northwestern are dealing with the testing issue in several ways. Some require the test be 
taken and submitted in a specific time frame. Others design their tests so that the student may have access 
to materials with relaxed time constraints. Still others require the student to take the test in the presence of 
a proctor such as at a library , school, or college. Some of the faculty rely on course management software 
that regulates access to the tests which are always online. This software also grades and records test grades 
automatically. Initially in Sabine’s course all test questions were multiple choice and short answer. After 
evaluating the testing component, it was determined that test questions that required the student to think 
through a problem related to the learning experiences of the course and respond in an open ended format 
nnght be a better assessment technique. The feeling is that a time constrained test using thought questions 
that consist of content or learning experience dependent questions or issues is a better measure of 
knowledge and skill attainment than the multiple choice test, which is at a greater risk of being 
compromised by the less than honest student. ^ 


The Trial Phase: 

One quarter prior to going online, the course was evaluated with a group of students in a traditional 
classroom situation. Students were required to move through the course as if they were at a distant 
location. As they encountered problems, difficulties, or even minor inconveniences, they alerted the 
instructional designer, who noted the problem. Many times the students could suggest remedies for the 
problem, while at other times it was "back to the drawing board." In addition, the instructor met with the 
class as a whole on a weekly basis for debriefing sessions. 


Evaluation Phase: 

The evaluation phase occurred at the conclusion of the pilot class when a decision was made as to whether 
the course was ready for immediate publication to the web or needed significant revision. This decision 
rested with the course designer and the academic dean. All courses were subject to a review team with 
editorial responsibility. 



After one quarter online we have learned some lessons. What follows is a brief list of lessons learned. 

1. Any assumption you have about a student’s ability to understand hardware and software 
requirements for an online course are probably overly optimistic. 

2. Student motivation is no mean issue. A mature, self-directed, student will be much more successful 
than will one who needs constant or even intermittent attention. 

3. Every online student should have a password that is required to get into the course. 

4. Software packages that propose to solve all of your web publishing problems probably won’t. There 
is no way to get around learning html. 

5. Intuitiveness is in the eye of the beholder. What is perfectly clear to the developer is perfectly 
opaque to the student. 

6. Excitement will sustain the developer early on, drudgery will rear its ugly head after about three 
modules have been developed. 


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Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

7. Student misunderstandings take on geometric proportions and multiply like rabbits when using 

threaded discussion groups. ° 

8. The developer’s learning curve is marked by mistakes. Trial and error are standard fare. 

9. The maximum number of students a teacher can effectively deal with the first time a class is offered 
is probably about 15. 

10. Attrition is going to be high, about 40%, unless stringent admission standards are applied. 

11. Assuming an online student is relatively computer literate may be a dubious assumption. 

12. Time and effort required to manage an online class of 15 students is about the same as that required 
to manage a traditional 5 credit hour class. 

13. Development of an online class will take approximately 6 months if a faculty member is released Vi 

14. Developing acceptable assessment methods will be one of the major obstacles to be overcome. 

15. The course will be ever evolving due to changes the instructor wants to make, Changes in 
technology, and unforeseen problems that must be addressed. 

16. Be wary of tying the online course too closely with a particular text. If the text changes or you decide 
to change texts, then the entire online course has to be revised. On the other hand the online course 
should be referenced closely with a text and not redundant. 

17. At our institution the copyright belongs to the college. Establish this or some other arrangement 

18. Good Luck! 

hq p i 


Syllabus Format for WEB Based Courses 
Northwestern Technical Institute 
Course Name and Number 

Credit Hours: Instructor Name 

Lecture Hours: Office Location 

Lab Hours: Office Hours 

Telephone: Email: 

Catalog course description: 

Various disclaimer’s if required: 

Entry level requirements if needed: 

System Requirements to take full advantage of learning materials: 
D -erequisites: 


Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

bookstore^ 1 20(1 other reference material including non-text based materials, including url of online 

Recommended supplemental materials including non text-based materials 
Content by week, by topic, by unit, etc. ( called modules ) 

Course competencies (called goals) 

Instructional Objectives ( including knowledge skills) (called objectives ) 

Learning Activities including on-line activities, text based activities, and CD-based activities 
Course requirements - assignments, term papers, projects, etc. with due dates 
Practice examinations - (called self-assessment) 

Evaluation procedure (called assessment) 

Work ethic requirement 
Grading scale 

Policies and procedures for course operation 
Policy on academic dishonesty 

Communication with instructor and bulletin board policies and procedures 

Module Format 
Web-Based Class 

Credit Hours: 
Lecture Hours: 

Lab Hours: 

Course Name and Number 
Instructor Name 

Office Location 

Office Hours 


Module Name and or Number 


Learning Activities: 



Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

Readings, Text 
Readings, Links 
Pronunciation Activities 
Written Assignments 
Self Assessment: 


Communication With Instructor: 

Ho El 


1996 ASTD Multimedia Authoring Software Directory. (1996, May). Training & Development. 50 £5j 

Armstrong, G. (1996). One Approach to Motivating Faculty to Use Multimedia. T.H.E. Journal. 23 (101 

0 Bisman, J. (1996, April). Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning, Number 19. 

Bitter, G. G. , & Pryor, B. W. (1996, April). Toward Guidelines for Research & Development 
of Interactive Multimedia: The Arizona State University TMMUIV Project. 

Blumhardt, J. H., & Cross, L. R. (1996, January). Making the Jump(s) into Cyberspace: A Discussion on 

Distance Learning Paradigm Shifts Required for the 21 st Century. ED. Education at a Distance. 10 m. 

Burgen, A. (Ed.). (1996). Goals and Purposes of Higher Education in the 21 st Century. Higher Education 
Policy Series 32. 

Burke, J. J. (1996). Using E-Mail to Teach: Expanding the Reach of BI. Research Strategies. 14 f IV 36-43. 

Caudron, S. (1996, May). Wake Up to New Learning Technologies. Training & Development. 50 (5Y, 


Chance, E. W. (1996). Electronic Field Trips: Using Technology to Enhance Classroom Instruction. Rural 
Educator. 19 (3). 34-35. 

Eggers, R. M., & McGonigle, D. (1996). Internet-Distributed College Courses: Instructional Design Issues 




Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference 

Freud, R. (1996, June). Community Colleges and the Virtual Community. 

Furst-Bowe, J. (Ed.). (1996). Competencies Needed to Design and Deliver Training Using Instructional 

Furst-Bowe, J. (Ed.). (1996). Competencies Needed to Design and Deliver Training Using Instructional 

Gant, L. P. (1996, February). Lessons in Developing Distance Learning. Performance and Instruction 35 
(2L 22-25. — 

Garland, V. E., & Loranger, A. (1996). The Medium and the Message: Interactive Television and Distance 
Education Programs for Adult Learners. Journal of Educational Technology. 24 nv 249-57. 

Hall, B. (1996, March 11 ). Lessons in Corporate Training: Multimedia’s Big Pavoff. NewMedia 6 (4) 
40-45. ’ 

Hardin, P. C., & Reis, J. (1997, February). Interactive Multimedia Software Design: Concepts, Process, 
and Evaluation. Health Education & Behavior. 24 (TL 35 - 53 . 

Harlan, M. R. (1996). Corporate Distance Learning Systems for Employee Education. Journal of 
Instruction Delivery Systems. 10 H). 14-16. 

Hart, R. A., & Parker, R. (1996, February 16). Technological Challenges: Designing Large Compressed 
Video and Multimedia Classrooms. 

Information for Web-Based Training Developers. (1996, May). Training & Develonment. 50 (5} 54 . 

Kerka, S. (1996). Distance Learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest. 

Krile, T., Juell, P„ & Vetter, R. (1996, May). Pioneering on the New Frontiers of Education. ComDuter 29 
£5L 112-114. . * 1 — 

Kruse, K, & Feldstein, M. (1997, March). Exploring Multimedia Internet-Based Training. Training & 
Development. 51 (3\ 55-56. 

Lee, S. H. (1996). Criteria for Evaluating and Selecting Multimedia Software for Instruction. 

Ljutic, A. (1996, May). Learning to Telecommunicate — Distance Learning Projects in Less-Developed 
Countries. Learning with Technology, 23 fftV 65-67. 

Mende, R. (1996, May 28). Building Global Communities through the Internet. 

Misanchuk, E. R„ & Schwier, R. A. (1996, February). Benefits and Pitfalls of Using HTML as a CD-ROM 
Development Tool. 

Moller, L„ & Draper, D. (1996). Examining the Viability of Distance Education as an Instructional 
Approach. Journal of Continuing Higher Education. 44 HV 12-21. 

Moore, M. G. (Ed.). (1996). Tips for the Manager Setting Up a Distance Education Program. American 
Journal of Distance Education. 10 m, 1-5 


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Musial, G. G., & Kampmueller, W. (1996). Two-Way Video Distance Education: Ten Misconceptions 
about Teaching and Learning via Interactive Television. Action in Teacher Education. 17 (41. 28-36. 

Nicholls, P. (1997, April). Becoming a Multimedia Author: Courses and Programs for Multimedia. Emedia 
Professional. 10 (41. 107-1 12. 

Nicholson, A. Y. W. & Ngai, J. Y. K. (1996). Converting a Traditional Multimedia Kit into an Interactive 
Video CD-ROM. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 23 f31. 235 — 48. 

Randall, B. (1996). A Marketing Approach to Distance Learning Technology: A Statewide Survey. 
Community College Review. 23 (4). 15-32. 

Richart, V. M. (1996, April). Considerations for the Development of a Higher Education Agenda for the 
‘90s and Beyond. 

Ross, J. A. (1996, April). Computer Communication Skills and Participation in a Computer-Medicated 
Conferencing Course. 

Schrum, L. (1996, March). Teaching at a Distance: Strategies for Successful Planning and Development. 
Learning and Leading with Technology. 23 (6L 30-33. 

Sener, J. (1996, April). Delivering an A. S. Engineering Degree Program through Home Study Distance 

Shenitt, C. (1996, January). A Fundamental Problem with Distance Programs in Higher Education. 

Terrell, S. (1996, March). From Teaching to Learning: Transition in Distance Education. 

Tulloch, J. (1996, February). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Distance Learning. 

Williams, H. M. (1996, January). Curriculum Conceptions of Open Learning: Theory, Intention and 
Student Experience in the Australian Open Learning Initiative. 


Ms. Ginger Sabine, Department Chair, Computer Information Systems, Northwestern Technical Institute, 
Rock Spring, GA 30739, email: 

Dr. Daryl Gilley, Vice President for Instruction, Northwestern Technical Institute, Rock Spring, GA 30739, 





Karen J. Thoms 

Professor of Learning Resources and Technology Services Resources 

St. Cloud University 


Technology for Preservice Teachers 

Milken/ISTE Study 

St. Cloud State University Model 

Latest Experiment 





Today's education major, early childhood, K-12, or special education, needs to be comfortable with 
technology in the classroom. What do preservice teachers need to know about technology? LOTS! 
Explore the COE media and materials course, newly revised to reflect content that teachers need to know 
BEFORE stepping into a classroom. 


Technology for Preservice Teachers 

Today's classroom is very different from onelO-15 years ago. Technology not only makes classroom 
instruction easier, it can also make it more difficult. This presentation will explore the course content of 
a media and materials course which is required of education majors, regardless of their discipline and 
grade range. Teachers in Minnesota are experiencing the Profiles of Learning and new Graduation 
Standards; technology is at the heart and soul, and preservice teachers must be able to help their students 
meet these goals and standards. Inquiry and technology are at the foundation. Explore the range of 
technology (and non-technology) course content. 

A recent U. S. Department of Education study reported that relatively few teachers (20%) felt well 
prepared to integrate educational technology into classroom instruction (1999). The Milken Exchange on 
Education Technology commissioned the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) to 
survey teacher-preparation institutions. The 416 respondents, representing approximately 90,000 
graduates per year, reported on the extent to which future teachers were being exposed to technology in 
their classes, field experience and curriculum materials. The report finds that teacher-training programs, 
in general, do not provide future teachers with the kinds of experiences necessary to prepare them to use 
technology effectively in their classrooms. The federal government has projected a need for 2.2 million 
new teachers over the next decade. These teachers must meet the challenge head on! This report is one 
which every College of Education dean must read and every College of Education faculty member must 
acknowledge. Truly the time to examine each of our teacher-preparation programs is now to insure our 
students graduate from our programs being able to practice their skills and incorporate the best 
technology available. 

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11/30/99 4:42 PM 


from our programs being able to practice their skills and incorporate the best technology available. 


Milken/ISTE Study 

An analysis of survey data indicated: 

• About a third of the respondents felt their programs are limited by deficiencies in their IT 
(instructional technology) facilities; 

• Faculty IT skills tend to be comparable to the IT skills of students they teach; 

• Distance education and computer- assisted instruction currently affect only a small proportion of 
students in teacher training institutions; 

• Most teacher-preparation programs do not have a written, funded, regularly-updated technology 

• Most institutions report that IT is available in the K-12 classrooms where student teachers get their 
field experience; most student teachers, however, do not use technology during field experience and 
do not work with master teachers and supervisors who can advise them on IT use. 

Additional findings of the study indicated: 

• Formal stand-alone IT coursework does not correlate well with technology skills and the ability to 
integrate IT into teaching; 

• To increase the technology proficiency of new teachers in K-12 classrooms, training institutions 
should increase the level of technology integration in their own academic programs. 

• Where and how education students acquire their basic technology skills. 

Studies have been conducted and reports have been written which indicate that information technology is 
at the foundation of education, addressing effective educational uses of IT for PreK-12 (Sandholtz et al., 
1997; Wenglinsky, 1998). Teachers report a need for more time and training in both technology skills and 
technology-based pedagogy (Office of Technology Assessment, 1995), which indicates they lack 
confidence in their IT skills. It would be a logical conclusion, therefore, that instructional technology 
would be a hearty component of preservice teacher programs. During the past 15 years, the amount of IT in 
PreK-12 education has grown rapidly. For example, one estimate indicates Internet access is in about 85 
percent of schools and 44 percent of classrooms (Jerald, 1998). Willis and Mehlinger (1996) summarized 
the situation in just a few sentences: 

• "Most preservice teachers know very little about effective use of technology in education and leaders 
believe there is a pressing need to increase substantially the amount and quality of instruction 
teachers receive about technology. . . . The conclusion is that teacher education ... is not preparing 
educators to work in a technology-enriched classroom"(p. 978). 

This presentation/paper is not designed to summarize the Milken/ISTE Report, but rather to show how St. 
Cloud State University's College of Education is addressing the need for its graduates to be IT-prepared to 
meet the demands and expectations of today's classroom. 


9 °t. Cloud State University Model 


All College of Education majors must complete the media/materials course, a stand-alone IT course (IM 
421: Media, Materials, and Methods of Instruction), where students are taught more than just 
computer-literacy skills. They are taught how to incorporate technology in the classroom by seeing their 
instructors talk it and walk it by including IT in their classrooms. These faculty members serve as role 
models for the preservice teachers. 

Currently the IM 421 course is under revision. When the institution converted from a quarter to semester 
system Fall 1998, the 4-credit course was initially planned to be a straight conversion to a 3-credit course. 
As with many program changes, there were negotiations which were necessary and modifications necessary 
to accommodate the needs of departments as well as maintain a 120-credit (semester) minimum for 

"In the good old days" students would take the PPST and enroll in the media/materials course. As recently 
as 1993 students approximately 50% of the students in the class had little or no competency with 
computers and a number of those students had no desire to learn about them! As the years have progressed, 
more students have a working knowledge of computers (e-mail, WWW and limited word processing). 
Computer literacy and information literacy are usually not well-honed skills brought into this course, 
although there will always be the 5-10% who are extremely knowledgeable of computers. Even when they 
are "computer literate" many lack an understanding of how to incorporate technology into the classroom 
and do it effectively throughout the course. Currently, most students enter the course with their own e-mail 
account, limited to extensive skills using the WWW for basic searches, and basic word processing skills). 

In this 3-credit course instructors were expected to not only teach the technology but also incorporate it 
into classroom applications. Because of those negotiations referred to previously, the course was reduced 
to 2 credits, with a transitional required co-requisite of a 1 -credit applications course (the total being 3 
credits). This 2/1 combination will be soon replaced with the original 2-credit media/materials course, with 
the course content to remain approximately the same. One solution for this dilemma has been to have a 
pre-requisite computer literacy/applications proficiency requirement, which can be demonstrated by 
enrolling in certain lower-division courses or being able to pass a competency exam. By requiring the 
computer proficiency as a prerequisite, classroom time is not taken teaching computer and other 
instructional technology basics, but rather having students do the applications associated with their 
individual disciplines/grade ranges. 

Competencies as a prerequisite. First, it is important to understand the competencies which students are 
expected to have prior to enrolling in this required media/materials course. The competencies include: 

• OS skills: start-up/shutdowns/restarts; desktops (icons, menus, windows management); file handling; 
disk/volume issues; documents and applications; networking operations. 

• Application skills/productivity: general applications (save, file types, editing setting/changing 
margins; printers/printing options; integration of applications) and within applications (word 
processing, graphical software, internet, and database and spreadsheet software). 

One specific course (IM 260: Information Technologies) has been modified to give students the 
"proficiency" they need to walk into the media/materials course prepared to create materials to be used 
with instructional technology as well as use the technology. Students spend time with different aspects of 
distance education, including designing Web pages and searching the Internet for resources. This course is 
a general education course, not directed toward education but rather general applications. They learn the 
basics, but the classroom adaptation is left to the faculty in the media/materials course. Another course 
within the College of Education (IM 245: Microcomputers in Classrooms and Media Centers) provides 
0 ™ost of these same proficiencies but is designed for COE majors, and it is a survey of available hardware 




software, and related instructional materials for use by classroom teachers. 

IM 421: Media^Materials, and Methods of Instruction. This course addresses the theory and techniques of 
selection, evaluation, and use of print and non-print materials, such as library materials, display materials, 
slides, motion pictures, videotapes, sound recordings, microcomputer programs, the internet, and 
telecommunications (including interactive television). This media/materials course includes a wide variety 
of requirements as well as a number of options and alternatives for students, based on their preferences as 
well as discipline and grade differences. 

The course content for IM 421: Media, Materials, and Methods of Instruction include the following: 

• World Wide Web - researching educational materials on the WWW and Internet; 

• Bibliographic instruction - learning to find resource materials located both in-house within the SCSU 
library and through other sources (ILL, electronic full-text documents, etc.) 

• Trends in educational/instructional technology, based on Donald Ely's book. 

• Communications tools -writing letters and memos (as applicable), interviewing to obtain 
information, incorporating critical questioning in the classroom, creating and giving effective 
presentations, writing instructions/directions, and designing a survey/questionnaire instrument; 

• Media and instruction - understanding the role(s) of media in education and being aware of the 
domains of learning, and designing media and materials to support these domains; 

• Systematic planning for media use - writing behavioral objectives, establishing the behavioral 
objective as a guide in selection media and materials, and designing and developing learning 
activities which follow the ASSURE Model. 

• Visual principles and design - defining visual literacy, applying principles and elements of design to 
visual materials, and preparing visuals according font and size guidelines; 

• Nonprojected visuals - discussing the types of nonprojected visuals which may be used in the 
classroom, determining the most appropriate non-projected visuals to be used based on needs and 
objectives, displaying visuals appropriately, creating bulletin boards, and planning and making 
arrangements for a fieldtrip; 

• Projected visuals - comparing the advantages/disadvantages of types of projected visuals and 
preparing projected visuals (transparencies, slides); 

• Audio media - differentiating between audio formats used in education and determining when audio 
media can be used to enhance classroom activities; 

• Motion media - identifying types and formats of motion media, preparing instructional 
media/materials that include motion, and understanding the special attributes of motion media; 

• Computers in education - identifying the roles of computers in education, demonstrating proficiency 
in using computers in the educational setting, understanding the role(s) of computers in education, 
selecting computer software and hardware based on availability and needs, evaluating computer 
software and hardware, and gaining hands-on experience with CD-ROMs, interactive programs, etc.; 


. r o 



• Multimedia systems - comparing multimedia systems to determine the most appropriate to meet 
objectives, identifying equipment necessary to use the multimedia systems, and discussing the 
advantages/disadvantages of each type of multimedia system; 

• Computer networks - understanding the characteristics of computer networks (LAN, WAN, Internet, 
intranet, WWW, etc.), searching the WWW and Internet for resources and information, knowing the 
basics of creating a Web site/page, and discussing access and supervision students should have for 
using the Internet; 

• Distance education - discussing the educational and instructional uses of distance 
leaming/telecommunications, identifying the formats for distance education (ITV, Internet, WWW, 
etc.), comparing and contrasting the role of the instruction in each telecommunications system, 
determining media and materials to be used for each format, and setting up an ergonomically sound 
distance education classroom; 

• Process technologies, simulations, games, etc. - understanding how process technologies help 
demonstrate effective learning and discussing the similarities/differences between games and 

• Looking ahead - understanding the trends in media and technology, knowing what the "school of the 
future" will very like look like, using hardware and software which has been designed for the next 
century, and discussing some professional organizations in educational technology; 

• Looking back - identifying earlier media/material formats, using the "older" formats when 
appropriate, and selecting appropriate mediums to be used in the classroom; 

• Equipment and setups - practicing safety when working with different types of media, moving 
equipment safely, and identifying unsafe working conditions involving media and equipment; 

• Copyright guidelines - applying copyright laws and guidelines when creating media and materials, 
incorporating use of media/materials in the classroom according to copyright guidelines, 
understanding the implications of the Fair Use Doctrine, knowing the fines and penalties associated 
with copyright infringement, and explaining to students the purpose and need for copyright laws and 

Required assignments for this course include the following: 

E-mail account - students must have an active e-mail account. Today, most students have either an 
SCSU account or one through an Internet provider. Purpose: students must be able to contact me 
(and visa versa) and it will be a means for submitting one of their assignments; 

Memo - following memo format, students are to indicate to me what their major project will be. 
Purposes of assignment: have students write a memo using the appropriate format, determine the 
topic of their course-long project, and identify the culminating project (selected from a number of 
options, print or nonprint); 

E-mail assignment - e-mail message summarizing WWW search of educational materials. Purposes 
of assignment: get the students using e-mail (it’s still new to some of them), have them search out 
educational materials (lesson plans, organizations, papers, etc.) found on the WWW, and summarize 
the contents of the Web search; 

Letter - following the letter format, students are to draft a letter to a publisher requesting permission 
to duplicate and distribute a copy of a journal article to each of the students in their class. Purposes 
of the assignment: have students write a letter following appropriate format style, identify a journal 




article which might be distributed to students, and emphasize the importance of securing permission 
from a publisher to duplicate and distribute this material (according to copyright guidelines); 

• Paper/project outline - following the ASSURE Model, students will create an outline identifying 
media, materials, and methods of instruction they will use during a lesson or unit of instruction. 
Purposes of assignment: encourage (force) them to think about the media/materials they will use and 
how they help students meet the objectives of the unit as well as encourage effective design and 
planning of a unit; 

• Mediagraphy - using the SCSU library and its outreach capabilities, students will create a 
mediagraphy (also known as a mediography or bibliography) of resource materials which they might 
use during this course-long project on which they are working. Purposes: have students learn and use 
the various search strategies for finding information pertinent to their topic and give students an 
opportunity to structure their findings in a final format -a mediagraphy which could be used to 
support academic writing; 

• Videotape - in a group of 3-6, students will design, create, and videotape an educational learning 
activity. They select the topic, the student population, and the place the videotaping will take place. 
Purposes of assignment: teach students how to plan a videotape (storyboarding), encourage them to 
experiment with a new educational/instructional medium, and create a finished product that might be 
used in one of their classrooms; 

• Handout - following visual literacy and instructional design guidelines, students will create a 
handout relevant to their culminating project. Purposes of assignment: get students thinking in terms 
of computer- generated materials, allow students to create well-planned and high quality materials; 

• Transparency - following visual literacy and instructional design guidelines, students will create a 
multi-color transparency with one graphic, multiple colors of text, and multi font sizes. Purposes of 
assignment: have students apply appropriate guidelines for creating a transparency, show students 
there is much more in the way of transparencies that those created with a photocopier or thermofax 
machine, and encourage creativity in the use of graphics; 

• Major project - following visual literacy and instructional design guidelines appropriate to their 
project, students will create a project (mobile, game, computer-delivered presentation, videotape, 
audiotape, bulletin board, etc.), write a grammatically correct "blue print" following the ASSURE 
outline which they created for a prior assignment, and give an oral presentation to the class on the 
process/procedures they followed in the creation of this project. Purposes of assignment: get students 
to think of media/material options which they have, encourage student creativity in designing 
media/materials, reinforce the "writing across the curriculum" concept of well-prepared written 
materials, document their use of a media/material which they created, and support the need for oral 
communication skills in the classroom; 

• In addition to the above assignments, other activities include, but are not limited to, the following: 

• practicing with the ITV (interactive television system); 

• designing a Web page; 

• previewing and evaluating several CD-ROM or interactive computer disks; 

• setting up and using "older" equipment such as filmstrips, film projectors, slide projectors, etc. 

The above four options are largely elective based on the individual instructor's preference, strengths, and 
time commitment. 


Latest Experiment 


Recently this College of Education Teacher Development department asked whether the Information 
Media department would consider offering the media/materials course as part of the elementary education 
block. Prior to this time, students enrolled in the media/materials course which was most convenient for 
them. This meant that early childhood, elementary, secondary, special education, music, and physical 
education majors were all together in a course. It was decided to "block" some sections of this course with 
elementary education courses. The intent was to have the media/materials course and one of the blocked 
courses paired so that there was integration of technology in the other course. In order for this concept to 
work, the need was there for the instructors of both classes to coordinate some of their activities and 
content. Fall 1998 was the first time this paired concept was used, and (as with many ideas in education) 
there were some "bugs" and glitches that have yet to be worked out. If this is to continue, there will be 
continued need for a cooperative work arrangement between the two instructors of the courses so that 
integration and continuity can and will take place. There were the other normal problems associated with 
initiating a new concept, but those will be worked out with both time and modification to the courses 


This is definitely the time to evaluate and make changes to our preservice teacher education curriculum in 
order to equip our graduates with the skills they need for today's classroom. As more schools become 
connected with the Internet and have WWW access, there is greater potential for student researcher. 
Technology is now advanced so that media centers and classrooms are equipped with more than an 
overhead projector and a filmstrip projector. Whether we are referring to CD-ROMs, videodisk players, or 
computers, we are looking to a classroom which is vastly different than the ones 10-15 years ago. Will new 
teachers be prepared to teach in a digital age- they certainly should be able to if Colleges of Education 
make the commitment to insure a curriculum which is rich in technology introductions, technology 
applications, and technology integrations. 



JeraC. D. (1998, October). "By the Numbers." 

Jerald, C.D. (1998, October). "By the Numbers." Education Week Technology Counts '98, pp. 102-103. 

Office of Technology Assessment, U. S. Congress. (1995). Teachers and Technology: Making the 
Connection [online]. Available: http.VAvww. . 

Sandholz, J. H., Ringstaff, C., & Dwyer, D. C. (1997). Teaching with Technology: Creating 
Student-Centered Classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press. 

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Teacher Quality: A Report on the 
Preparation and Qualifications of Public School Teachers, January 1999. 

Wenglinsky, J. (1998). Does it Compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student 
Achievement in Mathematics. Princeton, New Jersey: Policy Information Center, Educational Testing 

Willis, J. W. & Mehlinger, H. D. (1996). Information Technology and Teacher Education in J. Sikula, T. J. 
Buttery, & E. Guyton (eds.) Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (2nd ed.). New York: Simon & 
Schuster Macmillan, pp. 978-1029. 





gjjf- Contact: 
■ ! -'f 

Karen J. Thoms 

Professor of Learning Resources and Technology Services Resources 
Technology Services 
CH #102 

St. Cloud State University 
Fourth Avenue South. 

Cloud, Minnesota 56301-4498 
(320) 255-4774 
(320) 255-4778 (fax) 




Through A Looking Glass Dimly 

* w 

Through A Looking Glass Dimly 
The Implications of the Globalization of Higher Education 

Jim Formosa 



"Isms" That Afflict Higher Education 
The Future Role of The Academy 
Changing the Role of Governing Boards 

The Necessity For Change On The Part Of Institutional Administration 

Faculty Roles In The Future 

The Learning Organization 

Summary and Conclusion 



Higher education is truly on the verge of globalization. Competition will come from traditional as well 
as non-traditional providers. For institutions to grow in the future significant change to the status quo 
. will be required. Many lessons can be learned from how industry is coping with the global economy. 

This paper explores required changes beginning with the academy itself and working down through the 
organization to faculty. Topics covered include the desirability of building learning organizations, the 
necessity for leadership, funding, reward structures, the new role of faculty, and the increasing necessity 
for a new conception of professional development. It is important that the reader understand the purpose 
of this present effort. It is not to provide a complete prescription for the challenges facing the academy . 
Rather, it is an attempt to raise awareness and point readers toward some potential answers. To do 
justice to each topic mentioned in this paper would require a paper on each. This paper is a highly 
condensed version of a book-length manuscript currently under development. 



Any one with even a passing familiarity with the current literature dealing with higher education is 
aware of the tremendous change that those of us in the academy face. For most institutions, there is a 
very real prospect of calls coming from multiple constituencies that we do more with less. Technology 
continues to progress and expand at a phenomenal rate. As the global society shifts to the information 
age, competition will become a part of everyday life for our faculty, staff, and administrators. Our 
institutions must become learning institutions. Harasim (1998) wrote ". . .it occurred to me that in the 
United States, the rhetoric of higher education almost never promotes "learning" as the character of the 
institution. Universities boast of "research," and colleges advertise "teaching"; no one that I know makes 
claims on learning. The avoidance of the term is more than accidental; it rests on suppositions that have 
significant ideological and practical consequences" (p. 92). 

Higher education continues to come under attack on many fronts. Most of these criticisms can be 
subsumed under two headings; efficiency and effectiveness. Politicians, motivated by what they perceive 
to be a bottomless money pit, as well as tightening fiscal constraints, have called for increased 
efficiency. Guskin (1996) stated the case as follows: 

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• There is a growing public acceptance that colleges and universities are not cost-effective, that the 
tuitions are too high, and that the academic institutions must therefore restructure their operations, 
much as happened in other sectors of American society. Within the higher education community 
itself, there is a new awareness of our inability to understand how to do more with less, especially 
in the delivery of education. What we know is how to do more with more or less with less (p. 27). 

Higher education has also come under criticism on issues of effectiveness. Ewell (1994), Peters (1994), 
Dill, Massey, Williams, and Cook (1996), and the Wingspread Group on Higher Education (1993) have 
all written about the sad state of institutional effectiveness and/or outcomes assessment. Banta, Lund, 
Block, and Oblander (1996) analyzed 165 cases representing a variety of institutional sizes and types. 
Each of these cases purported to be an example of an "exemplary' practice". Banta wrote in the 
conclusion, "I must say that the number of these cases containing concrete evidence that the student 
learning improved as a result of assessment is very small" (p. 343). 

The Pew Higher Education Research Program (1991) decried the fact that much of higher education has 
turned inward to cope with such criticism. They stated, "Higher education has become remarkably adept 
at avoiding questions of purpose. Even discussions of the curriculum focus more easily on process than 
on substance" (p. 1). 

As higher education becomes increasingly global, the changes that have been called for may come to 
pass as many institutions learn the true meaning of competition. Artificially enforced geographic 
boundaries and sacred cows will come under increasing pressure as institutions struggle to become 
competitive. Duderstadt (1999), described the impact of these changes on higher education as follows: 

• This carefully regulated and controlled enterprise could be eroded by several factors. First, the 
growing demand for advanced education and training simply cannot be met by such a carefully 
rationed and controlled paradigm. Second, current cost structures for higher education are simply 
incapable of responding to the need for high-quality yet affordable education. Third, information 
technology is releasing higher education from the constraints of space and time (and possibly also 
reality with virtual universities). All of these factors are driving us toward an open learning 
environment, in which students will evolve into an active learner and consumer, unleashing strong 
market forces. ... With the emergence of new competitive forces and the weakening influence of 
traditional constraints, higher education is evolving like other "deregulated" industries (for 
example, health care, communications, and energy)(p. 10). 

This is significant for all of our institutions. As Rowley, Lujan, and Dolence (1998) stated, ". . .in the 
information age there will be winners and losers. Those who try to shape change and its effects on them 
will likely be winners, and those who resist adapting will likely be among the losers (p. 4)". Duderstadt 
(1998), placed the warning in concrete terms when he stated: 

• Those institutions that can step up to this process of change will thrive. Those that bury their 
heads in the sand; that rigidly defend the status quo or even worse - some idyllic vision of the past 
that never existed, are at very great risk. Those institutions that are micromanaged, either from 
within, by faculty politics or governing boards or their own administrators, or from without, by 
government or pubic opinion, stand little chance of flourishing during times of great change. The 
real question is not whether higher education will be transformed but rather how and by whom 

O'Banion (1997) echoed the same theme when he wrote: 

• American society is in a key stage of transformation from the Industrial Age to the Information 
Age, and all social institutions are - or will be - affected by the change. Many institutions, 
especially those of business and industry, have been actively involved in responding to these 
changes for some time; others, such as educational institutions, have begun to respond only 
recently and in most cases with a reserved enthusiasm. It appears that considerable benefit will 
accrue to those educational institutions that can successfully navigate the change while those that 
do not may atrophy or be consigned to the "rubbish heap of history." 

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Why does higher education find itself in this situation? 

[To pi 

"Isms" That Afflict Higher Education 

While thinking about this paper, I began to think about the various "isms" that afflict most of our 
institutions to a greater or lesser degree. In these and other "isms" may lie some of the reasons for our 
current condition. They are listed below, rather poorly paraphrased, and without attribution. 

• You can't use the same thought patterns that brought you to your current position in the hope that 
they will somehow lead you out. 

• The fallacy of rewarding A while hoping for B. 

• The fallacy of doing the same things in the same way and hoping for different outcomes. 

• To face tomorrow with the thought of using the methods of yesterday is to invite standstill. 

• If you are headed in the wrong direction, integrating technology into your instruction will simply 
help you get there faster. 

• Doing what you've always done, only faster. 

• True transformative change only occurs at funerals. 

• In higher education, routine work drives out all non-routine work and smothers to death all 
creative planning, all fundamental change in the university. 

• The current change efforts under way in higher education are closely akin to pruning limbs from a 
dying tree. 

• In times of change, the learners inherit the world while the learned remain beautifully equipped to 
deal with a world that no longer exists. 

• Placing good people in bad systems will ultimately end up creating an organization of 
under-achieving people. 

• Much of what goes on in higher education can best be characterized as form over substance. 

• Treating every one in an organization the same is a prescription for mediocrity. The level of 
mediocrity will trend downward over time without outside intervention. 

As with all such sayings, there is a grain of truth in each of these. 

If these are valid vis-a-vis higher education, we may have discovered the heart of the problem. Can any 
organization so afflicted hope to truly change and become competitive? How are we to overcome these 
anchors and look to the future with anything akin to optimism? What are the implications of the 
globalization of higher education? This paper will look in-tum at the implications for various areas 
within the academy, beginning with the role of the academy itself. 

[To p] 

The Future Role of The Academy 

With the foregoing as a background, we need to ask ourselves how our institutions will respond to these 
calls for change. Senge (1997) wrote of what he sees as the most significant problem with today's 
organizations in the following terms. "We have massive institutional breakdown and massive failure of 
the centralized nervous systems of hierarchical authoritarian institutions in the face of growing 
interdependence and accelerating change (pp. 125 - 126). 



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Connick (1997) wrote about higher education institutions in the following words: 

• As a result of changing economic and social conditions in the United States and around the world, 
America approaches the twenty-first century with more than thirty-six hundred accredited 
institutions that were built in a different era, for a different student population, with a different set 
of economic realities. Our educational institutions reflect their industrial-era roots. They are 
organized around centralized structures (similar to the factory model) by aggregating the workers 


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(faculty and students) at a particular place (the campus) at a particular time (the academic 
calendar). Education as a public monopoly will cease to exist. The future for most institutions will 
be determine by the extent to which they have an educational product or products that are 
provided conveniently for the consumer at a competitive cost (p. 9). 

Oblinger and Rush (1997) wrote of three possible scenarios for institutions of higher education as 

• One is that the academy does not need to change and won't 

• A Second scenario follows the historic model of higher education. A new type of institution will 
emerge to serve the future needs of learners. Over the past 300 years, much of the growth and 
innovation of higher education has come about through the addition of new institutions, not 
through the adaptation of existing institutions. In this scenario they quote Dolence and Norris 
(1995) as stating that a new design model is essential to meet the needs of the Information Age. 
This new design would be characterized by l)open access, to 2) a network of experts, in 3)both 
traditional and hybridized disciplines using 4) just-in-time learning, providing 5) perpetual 
learning, facilitated by 6) "fused" learning systems and 7) unbundled learning experiences based 
on learner needs. 

• A third scenario is described by Tate (1996): New production, delivery and certification 
organizations (PDCs) will invade distribution of higher education courses. These PDCs will 
operate on a national basis, using the most efficient and effective communications media 
available. Courses and programs will be designed and produced to commercial standards. These 
organizations will purchase subject matter expertise from many sources, depending upon the 
degree of expertise and the quality of content preparation. PDCs will provide competence-based 
testing and certification services. Students may participate in interactive testing at any time and 
place of their choosing - and pay a fee to receive certification upon successful completion. At first, 
PDCs will "flow through" from the institution that provides the content. Later, independent 
accreditation agencies will assess the process, content, and certification of PDCs. (PPS. 15-16) 

[To pi 

Changing the Role of Governing Boards 

It is the belief of this author that the governing board may well hold the keys to the future of the majority 
of our institutions. Another of the truisms that businesses and institutions of all types face is the fact that 
people generally pay attention to those things that feel are important to their superiors. Until boards 
demand leadership and change instead of attempting to manage every institution by the same yardsticks 
of how good their reports look in relationship to other institutions within the system, the quip by Adam 
Urbanski (1992), that "If you always do what you've always done you'll always get what you always 
got", will continue to be true. 

In the future, productivity will not be measured in terms of inputs (number of FTE students, numbers of 
faculty, or seat time). Instead, productivity will be measured in terms of outputs (numbers of students 
completing courses of study, number of students passing certification tests, numbers of students 
completing their personal learning goals). Governing boards, are, after all, ultimately responsible for the 
behavior and performance of senior level administrators at most of our institutions. How does the role of 
senior administration need to change? We turn next to this question. 

[To pi 

The Necessity For Change On The Part Of Institutional Administration 

In many of our institutions, particularly public institutions, administrators can best be described as 
managers. Even those who may understand that what is required is leadership rather than management 
are slow to move in that direction. The literature is replete with examples of what happens to senior level 
administrators who attempt to actively lead their institutions. As long as governing boards reward the 
upper echelon managers of our institutions for being managers and bureaucrats, that’s exactly what we 



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will get. If governing boards want leadership, they will be forced to deal fairly with the criticisms that 
come with this change. 

Bess (1997) identified the administration of higher education institutions as being one of the primary 
determinants of good teaching that results in student learning. Green (1990) wrote much the same thing 
and included a list of principles and strategies that administrators can use to improve the quality of 
teaching on their campuses: 

• Make teaching a leadership priority 

• Be a partner in the venture 

• Have faculty lead the change 

• Put your money where your rhetoric is 

• Reward good teaching in ways that matter 

• Encourage life outside the department 

• Encourage contacts outside the institution 

• Define teaching broadly 

• Work from an understanding of adult development 

• Make good teaching an institutional responsibility 

• Make teaching ability a criterion for hiring faculty 

The role of Leadership 

There is a significant and growing literature, which addresses the issue of leadership, leadership 
development, and how leadership differs from management. It is the intent of the present effort to 
address leadership as it impacts change. Brill and Worth (1997) detailed the importance of leadership in 
change efforts: 

• No successful large-scale change effort has gone very far without effective leadership throughout 
the organization. This often requires two things: First, leaders must be trained, because there may 
not be enough of them, and second, they must be brought on board in support of the change effort. 
The leaders will move this effort forward if they know how and if they are committed to it. 
However, they can just as easily destroy a change initiative if they don’t know how to support it or 
simply don’t want to go along, (p. 1 10) 

Gregory (1996), in discussing collegiate leadership, stated. "Leadership is about being a leading 
professional, leading others in a collegiate style, recognizing and encouraging quality, fostering and 
developing talent, intervening, coaching, and being a role-model for exemplary behavior, taking risks, 
and acting as a change agent" (p. 48). Heifetz (1994) wrote "Leadership means influencing the 
community to face its problems (p.14)". 

How will the roles of faculty change? The next section of this paper details the changing roles of faculty 
in a global system of higher education. 


Faculty Roles In The Future 

Many people believe that the most significant changes in higher education's future will involve the role 
of faculty. In an anytime, any place environment, faculty will have to be available to students when 
students need help. This means answering e-mail and returning phone calls at times that faculty is not 
used to being available. Faculty shift from being a "sage on the stage" to being a "guide on the side". If 
faculty is expected to be available in the evening and over the weekend, it is unreasonable to expect that 
they will be available the same number of hours as usual on campus. 

In an environment characterized by intense competition, the basic laws of economics will take over. The 
new bottom line for faculty will be measured by the amount of learning that takes place on the part of 
the student. This will result in a shift in emphasis from teaching to learning. 



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http://www.mtsu. edu/~itconf / proceed99/fo rmosa.htm 


Oblinger and Rush (1997) provide one of many lists of changes currently available in the literature in 
Table 1. 

Alternative Educational Model 

Current Model 

Future Model 

Technological Implications 

Classroom lectures 

Individual exploration 

Networked PCs with access to 

Passive absorption 


Requires skill development 
and simulations 

Individual work 

Team learning 

Benefits from collaborative 
learning and e-mail 

Omniscient teacher 

Teacher as guide 

Relies on access to experts 
over the network 

Stable content 

Fast-changing content 

Requires networks and 
publishing skills 



Requires a variety of access 
tools and methods 

Table 1 

Modified from table found on page 15 

A thoughtful review of table 1, will indicate the skill set for the faculty of the future will be significantly 
different from that of the past. In a meta-analysis of four surveys, Cyrs (1997), listed the following 
competencies as desirable for instructors who teach at a distance: 

• Course Planning and organization 

• Verbal and nonverbal presentation skills 

• Collaborative teamwork 

• Questioning strategies 

• Subject matter expertise 

• Basic learning theory 

• Knowledge of the distance learning field 

• Design of study guides coordinated with instruction 

• Graphic design and visual thinking (pp. 16 - 17) 

When the distance education is moved to the World Wide Web, additional skills will be necessary as 

• Collaborative learning 

• Cooperative learning 

• A wide range of technical skills 

• Active learning strategies 

One of the big questions is how will faculty acquire the requisite skills? Baiocco and DeWaters (1998) 
cite the results of several studies that conclude that traditional faculty development efforts are simply not 
effective. They wrote: 


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' * 

• We have concluded that higher education institutions must increase efforts and offer a radically 
different faculty development program to ensure that faculty will understand the changing nature 
of the student population, education, and their respective disciplines. We believe that higher 
education faculty need major retraining and ongoing support in learning theory, cultural 
sensitivity, teaching effectiveness, multimedia and technology use, evaluation. And assessment, 
field supervision, and classroom research. Moreover, that support must include administrative 
backing, which, as Eble and McKeachie reported, is predictive of program success (1985, p. 5) (pp. 

If the foregoing conclusions about possible implications are true and if the "isms" outlined above contain 
even a shred of truth, how do we get from where we are to where we need to be? Industry' has begun to 
turn to the concept of the learning organization to address similar problems in the private sector. This 
paper turns now to the exploration of the learning organization. 


The Learning Organization 

After trying many fads and programs of the month, industry is beginning to find merit in the concept of 
the learning organization. The learning organization is paradoxical in that it appears so simple in theory 
yet it is so difficult to achieve in actual practice. Senge (1990), in his classic work, defined five 
disciplines that characterize a learning organization as follows: 

• Systems Thinking. ... Business and other human endeavors are also systems. They, too, are bound 
by invisible fabrics of interrelated actions, which often take years to fully play out their effects on 
each other. Since we are part of that lacework ourselves, it's doubly hard to see the whole pattern 
of change. Instead, we tend to focus on snapshots of isolated parts of the system, and wonder why 
our deepest problems never seem to get solved. Systems thinking is a conceptual framework, a 
body of knowledge and tools that has been developed over the past fifty years, to make full 
patterns clearer, and help us to see how to change them effectively. 

• Personal Mastery. ... Personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our 
personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. 
As such, it is an essential cornerstone of the learning organization - the learning organization's 
spiritual foundation. An organization's commitment to and capacity for learning can be no greater 
than that of its members. 

• Mental Models "Mental models" are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even 
pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. Very 
often, we are not consciously aware of our mental models or the effects they have on our 
behavior. . ..Mental models of what can or cannot be done in different management settings are no 
less deeply entrenched. Many insights into new markets or outmoded organizational practices fail 
to get put into practice because they conflict with powerful, tacit mental models. 

• Building Shared Vision. If any one idea about leadership has inspired organizations for thousands 
of years, it's the capacity to hold a shared picture of the future we seek to create. When there is a 
genuine vision (as opposed to the all-too-familiar "vision statement"), people excel and learn, not 
because they are told to do so, but also because they want to. What has been lacking is a discipline 
for translating individual vision into a shared vision-not a "cookbook" but a set of guiding 

The practice of shared vision involves the skills of unearthing shared "pictures of the future" that 
foster genuine commitment and enrollment rather than compliance. In mastering this discipline, 
leaders learn the counterproductiveness of trying to dictate a vision, no matter how heartfelt. 




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Team Learning. . ..The discipline of team learning starts with "dialog." The capacity of members of 
a team to suspend assumptions and enter into a genuine "thinking together.". . .The discipline of 
dialog also involves learning how to recognize the patterns of interaction in teams that undermine 


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learning. The patterns of defensiveness are often deeply ingrained in how a team operates. If 
unrecognized, they undermine learning. If recognized and surfaced creatively, they can actually 
accelerate learning. ... Team learning is vital because teams, not individuals, are the fundamental 
learning unit in modem organizations, (pp. 8-10). 

Given the "isms" that afflict higher education, what can be done to insure that the disciplines of a 
learning organization can take root in this less than fertile soil? Thompson (1995) outlined 
organizational conditions for building a learning organization as follows: 

• Senior management committed to making learning capability part of its ongoing competitive 

• A compelling vision of the desired learning organization that people feel part of and are excited by 

• A clear blueprint for change 

• Milestones - identified, achieved, and celebrated 

• Committed leadership willing to model desired changes and drive fear out of the organization 

• Immediate corrective action with leaders who resist change 

• Senior management committed to significant investment of time and resources 

• A performance management system that links compensation to achievement of the desired vision 

• Encouragement and acknowledgement of experimentation, collaboration, innovation, and new 
paradigm thinking 

• Urgency - but no quick fixes 

• Multiple feedback structures 

• Multiple learning channels 

If a learning organization has potential for bringing about the necessary change in the academy, how do 
we begin the process? Beer (1999) argued persuasively that the type of learning processes that are 
required in today's turbulent marketplace would have to be powerful in order to overcome the inertia 
common in most organizations. He wrote: 

• The powers can, I will argue, be obtained from an organizational conversation - a dialog between 
the top team (also referred to later as the leadership team) and lower-level people from all parts of 
the organization concerned with implementing the strategic tasks of the organization. The dialog 
would have to provide valid data about how well strategy, organizational capabilities, and 
leadership behavior fit each other. And that data would have to be subject to rigorous analysis of 
and reflection about inevitably emotional issues that block leaders from fitting their behaviors to 
strategically driven organizational requirement. Lacking the capability of an open dialog and 
rigorous analysis of how leader behavior fits strategy and organization, it is inevitable that 
fundamental transformation in corporations occur only after financial crises leads to the 
replacement of the CEO and his top team. Although this appears inevitable given present 
leadership skills and social technology, the economic and human cost of waiting until a crises 
creates a revolution are sufficiently high to warrant a search for an alternative to the heroic 
leadership model we argue dominates the landscape of change (p. 129). 

Emery and Purser (1996), Lippet (1998), and Weisbord and Janoff (1995) have all demonstrated that the 
type of change that is required today can only be sustained on a base of trust and understanding and that 
this foundation can only be built on broad-based and frequent open communication that includes all 
interested parties from across the organization. 

[To p] 

Summary and Conclusion 

The environment for all of higher education continues to evolve into a truly global system. All aspects of 
American higher education will have to change in order to prosper in the coming years. It is doubtful if 
some of the implications outlined in this paper will be felt before the end of the next decade. For higher 
education to overcome its tendency towards inertia and the "isms" that characterize its day-to-day 
operations will require a systemic approach. The learning organization as outlined is one possible 



Li- t-i.T—iTr . n 

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1 * 


approach. Regardless of the approach selected, it is clear from all of the research that bureaucracy will 
have to give way to open organizations in which dialog is practiced on a daily basis. 



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Through^ Looking Glass Dimly 

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1 1/30/99 4:30 PM 

Getting Started with Multimedia in the Classroom and Tutorial Lab 

Getting Started with Multimedia in the Classroom and Tutorial Lab 

Dr. David Alan Otts 
Ms. Annette Williams 
Ms. Carol Willis Dawson 
Dr. Vivian R. M. Alley 
Middle Tennessee State University 


This hands-on session will help participants to get started using HyperStudio to create their own 
multimedia materials for use with students in both classroom and lab settings. Participants should have a 
topic for their presentation or tutorial. Examples of multimedia presentations and tutorials currently used 
with developmental algebra students will be shared, and participants will receive a demo-disk of 
HyperStudio for both Mac and Windows platforms. 

Getting Started with Multimedia in the Classroom and Tutorial Lab 

The MTV generation quickly loses interest in math topics presented on the chalkboard by some old 
fuddy-duddy 60's fossil lecturing about polynomials and rational numbers. A step forward is the use of 
the overhead projector, but students require even greater stimuli to hold their attention. Use of 
multimedia brings teaching methods into the 21st Century and helps students catch the dream of success 
in the 90's and beyond. Multimedia offers avenues for presenting material not possible with other 
methods, such as: (1) interaction, (2) animation to demonstrate concepts, (3) sound cues, (4) 
incorporation of stimulating visual effects such as flashing, and (5) non-linear progression. Each 
presenter has used multimedia authoring software to improve classroom instruction and to provide 
students additional review in a lab setting. New capabilities allow teacher-made stacks to be accesses vis 
the internet, allowing students the opportunity to study at home. 

Our objectives are to report the benefits of using multimedia in the classroom and lab, to demonstrate 
actual materials authored by the presenters, and to lead participants in the development of their own 
multimedia materials. Rapid development of multimedia presentation methods and equipping of special 
multimedia classrooms provides the opportunity to examine the effects of multimedia based instruction 
on developmental students. The presenters will share the results of their research comparing the learning 
and math anxiety of students in a multimedia classroom to the learning and math anxiety of students in a 
non-multimedia classroom. While the data indicate no statistically significant difference in the learning 
of students in the multimedia classroom and that of students in the non-multimedia classroom, both 
students and observers felt that students are more engaged by the multimedia based instruction. The 
study comparing math anxiety using the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale as the pre- and posttest 
instrument is currently being conducted and will be shared with the participants. 

All four presenters have and are developing multimedia based presentations for use in both classroom 
and lab. A presentation of elementaryalgebra topics and a tutorial on application problems made using 
HyperStudio will be shared with the participants as examples of teacher made multimedia. The lessons 
learned in developing these materials will also be shared. 

Participants will experience hands-on work with multimedia tools by developing their own presentation. 
A sample development tool (HyperStudio) will be available for participants. Those who wish to bring 
their own hardware and software are encouraged to do so. Each participant will create a 
mini-presentation that can be used as the basis for an expanded tutorial. 

Participants should have a topic for their presentation. 



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11/30/99 4:30 PM 

Getting Started with Multimedia in the Classroom and Tutorial Lab 

Dr. David Alan Otts 

Ms. Annette Williams 

Ms. Carol Willis Dawson 

Dr. Vivian 

Associate Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Associate P 

Middle Tennessee 
State University 

Middle Tennessee State 

Middle Tennessee State 

Middle Ten 

P.O. Box 386 

P.O. Box 370 

P. O. Box 16 

P. O. Box 3 

Murfreesboro, TN 

Murfreesboro, TN 37132 

Murfreesboro, TN 37132 



Fax: (615) 898-5907 

Fax: (615) 898-5907 

Fax: (615)898-5907 

Fax: (615)8 





e-mail: cdawson(a>, 





2 of 2 


11/30/99 4:30 PM 

U.S. Department of Education 

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERlj 
National Library of Education (NLE) 
Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) 



This document is covered by a signed “Reproduction Release 
(Blanket) form (on file within the ERIC system), encompassing all 
or classes of documents from its source organization and, therefore, 
does not require a “Specific Document” Release form. 

This document is Federally-funded, or carries its own permission to 
reproduce, or is otherwise in the public domain and, therefore, may 
be reproduced by ERIC without a signed Reproduction Release form 
(either “Specific Document” or “Blanket”). 


EFF-089 (9/97)